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updated 7 April 2015



DISCLAIMER
 
due to the nature of this site, visitors may become informed or offended
this site is designed to provide various resources from a conservative Christian perspective

however
(to provide readers with primary and secondary source material for research or dialogue)

many of the resource links (listed below) are from secular and non- Christian sources
including
quasi- Christian, pseudo- Christian, and non- Christian religions
(i.e., many resources are known to promote problematic, erroneous, and heretical teachings)

USE THIS WEBSITE AND ITS LINKS WITH EXTREME CAUTION AND AT YOUR OWN RISK!

 



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dialegomai : online resources
your link to online resources

  
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Welcome to dialegomai! Please select your area of interest from the index located in the boxes below this column.

Welcome to dialegomai! After several years of taking leave of dialegomai to address other priorities (mainly family) and reassess what it is that I want dialegomai to provide, I thought I would inform those who are interested that Im not done with it. Ive invested some time looking into what free resources the internet provides and contemplating how I might be able to use some of them to improve, supplement, or complement dialegomai.

Ive decided to remove several sections (perhaps temporarily) and I am currently checking and updating links locally as time permits (i.e. on the HTML file located on my computer). I will not update this online website until I am done.

Also, for anyone using a browser that is incompatible with HTML5 and CSS3, Im still coding dialegomai using HTML 4.01. This will remain unchanged until I have enough time and patience to learn and become familiar with HTML5 and CSS3.
.

To the right you will find the general contents of dialegomai. These links will be updated here and elsewhere when the revised website is released.

If you want this page to load faster, I recommend that you deactivate pictures for this site.

Roger Schremmer
  
7 April 2015

  

Locations of visitors to this page
  
    
 


Contents
(left column)


Biblical Resources: The Basics
Bibles (English, mixed)
Bible Software
Daily Devotions
Reading the Bible in a Year
Biblical Resources: Intermediate
Dictionaries, Cyclopedias, Encyclopedias
Historical Context & Commentaries
Dead Sea Scrolls & Papyri

Biblical Resources: Advanced
Ancient Language & Fonts
Bibles (Hebrew / Aramaic, Greek, Latin, Syriac, Coptic)
Lexicons, Grammar & Learning Guides (Hebrew / Aramaic, Greek)
Textual Criticism & Exegetical Resources


Apologetics (vs. Early Schisms & Heresies)

Writings of the Early Church (before 31 October 1517)
Apologetics (vs. Modern Schisms & Heresies)
Christian Apologetics (addressing quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions)
Apologetics (vs. Unbelief & Other Religions)
Christian Apologetics (addressing beliefs of non- Christian religions)
Creation & Science, et al. (Intelligent Design and Creationism)


Councils, Canons & Statements of Faith
Councils, Canons & Statements of Faith

Christian Denominations

Confessional Lutheranism (1530)
Church of England (1534)
Calvinism & Reformed (1536)
Baptists (ca. 1609)  

Miscellaneous: Useful Resources

Family Resources
Internet Resources

 


Contents
(right column)


English Language Resources

ESL Resources
Dictionaries & Encyclopedias
English Grammar
Academic Resources

Philosophy: The Art of Reasoning
History of Philosophy
Logic & Fallacies
Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

History: Past & Present
General Information
Ancient & Early History
Historical Context (Bible & Early Church)
Myths, Fables & Fairy Tales
Archæology
General Information
Old Testament & Intertestimental
New Testament & Early Church
Other Ancient Civilizations
Fossils & Living Fossils
Interesting Finds


Other Side of the Fence
Pseudepigraphal & Non- Canonical Writings (before 1000 C.E.)
Modern Schisms & Heresies (beliefs of quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions)
Unbelief & Other Religions (beliefs of non-Christian religions)
Creation & Science, et al. (Darwinism & Neo- Darwinism)

Catechisms: Teaching the Faith
Catechisms

Christian Denominations
Eastern Church (326)
Roman Catholicism (1563)
Anabaptists (1525)
Arminianism (1619)
United Church (1925, Canada; 1957, U.S.A.)


Significant Issues
Alleged Errors
Dispensationalism

 

  


 
2003 – 2015
 

 

dialegomai: online resources


copyright © 2003– 2015
Roger Schremmer, B.A., M.Div.

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last updated in April 2015

   

Since many "dialegomai" websites, blogs, etc. have appeared over the past few years, this is a list of links connected with this website:

webs.com – this is dialegomai's primary website; all updates, etc. will be done here first

GoogleSites – due to some significant issues, GoogleSites can no longer serve as a mirror site and now only serves as doorway to this website

150m.com – at present, this site serves as a doorway to this website. In the future, this website will serve as a mirror site

Facebook – this is where people can post links (in messages), dialogue, discuss topics of interest, etc. Although I oversee this page, my participation is limited

Blogger – this is where I post updates for dialegomai and some other things. I am not much of a blogger, but I will post things every now and again

YouTube – this is where I might add links to some interesting or informative videos (most are placed online by others)


There you have it!
 

  
A note on colour schemes used here.

Some may wonder about the colour schemes that were first introduced in June 2006 and have been developing since then. In short, areas with

 blue background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively safe (orthodox) in content since they generally do not promote, advocate or defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous or heretical material (however, see disclaimer at top of this web page).

 red background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively dangerous (unorthodox) in content since they generally do promote, advocate and defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous and even heretical material. Included are resources from quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions, cults, agnosticism, atheism, philosophical religions, the occult and other (non- Christian) religions.


 purple background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively confused in content since they generally provide both safe (orthodox) and dangerous (unorthodox) material, but for whatever reason they do not make any distinction between them. (See disclaimer at top of page.) Included in this section are Bibles containing the Apocryphal (Deuterocanonical) writings.


Some may disagree with the colour schemes I have given to one or more resources, but that is to be expected. Also, for the sake of clarity, resources with blue backgrounds do not necessarily reflect my beliefs.


A quick guide to common graphics and their meaning.

new link – this is a newly added link

offlinethis link is active but its content is offline (see that website for more information)

dead linkthis link is no longer active or its content has been removed; if you find a link, please email it to me

link wanteda link could not be found with this content; if you find a link, please email it to me

fixed linkthe previous link to this content was broken (dead) but has been replaced with a link that works

updatedinformation about the content of this link has been updated

correctedinformation about the content of this link, section, or area was found to be in error and has been corrected

addedthis is a newly added section or area

modifiedinformation about this link, section or area has been modified (perhaps in an attempt to make it more clear)

renamed – the link remains the same, but the title (and perhaps the content) has been modified

archived – the original link is no longer active or its content has been removed, but has been replaced with a link to a backup copy (perhaps from a mirror site or the Internet Archive)

internal linkthis is an internal link (to something available on dialegomai)
 

The following is a list of abbreviations for several English translations of the Bible (these are not linked and this list is not exhaustive):

RRS = my own translation (Schremmer)

21KJV = 21st Century King James Version
AAT = An American Translation (Beck)
ALT = Analytical– Literal Translation
AMP = Amplified Bible
ASV = American Standard Version
AV = Authorised Version (see KJV)

AV7 = New Authorized Version

BB = Bishops' Bible
BBE = The Bible in Basic English
BEB = Basic English Bible
CEV = Contemporary English Version
CJB = The Complete Jewish Bible
CPV = Cotton Patch Version
CV = Concordant Version
DARBY = Darby Bible / Translation
DOUAY– RHEIMS = Douay– Rheims Bible / Translation (American Edition)
ESV = English Standard Version
FF = The Holy Bible, A Modern Translation (Fenton)
GB = Geneva Bible
GOODSPEED = The Complete Bible: An American Translation (see SGAT)
GNB = Good News Bible / Translation
GW = God's Word (to the Nations)
HCSB = Holman Christian Standard Bible
HNV = Hebrew Names Version
IV = Inspired Version of the Bible (Smith)
JB = Jerusalem Bible
KJV = King James Version (see AV)
KJ1611 = King James Bible 1611 (olde English, 'he' variant; see KJV)
KJs1611 = King James Bible 1611 (olde English, 'she' variant)

KJV2000 = King James 2000 Version (Couric)

LB = Living Bible
MACE = The New Testament (Mace)

MKJV = Modern King James Version (Green Sr)

MLB = Modern Language Bible
MOFFATT = The New Testament: A New Translation
MSG = The Message
MURDOCK = New Testament (Murdock)
NAB = New American Bible
NASB = New American Standard Bible
NAV = New American Version
NCV = New Century Version
NET = New English Translation
NIRV = New International Reader's Version
NIV = New International Version
NIV84 = New International Version (1984 edition)
NIV–UK = New International Version— United Kingdom
NJB = New Jerusalem Bible
NKJV = New King James Version
NLV = New Life Version
NLT = New Living Translation
NRSV = New Revised Standard Version
NWT = The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures
OJB = Orthodox Jewish Bible
PHILLIPS = The New Testament in Modern English
RcV = The Recovery Version (New Testament)
REB = Revised English Bible
RSV
= Revised Standard Version
RV = Revised Version
SGAT = An American Translation (Smith- Goodspeed)
TEV = Today's English Version (see GNB)
TMB = Third Millenium Bible
TNIV = Today's New International Version
TYNDALE = The New Testament (Tyndale)

VOICE = Today's New International Version

WE = Worldwide English (New Testament)
WEB = World English Bible
WEBSTER = Webster's Bible
WEYMOUTH = The New Testament in Modern Speech
W&P = New Testament (Wycliffe, with Purvey revision)
YLT = Young's Literal Translation


The following is a list of abbreviations for Holy Scriptures in Biblical Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek languages (these are not linked):

BHS = Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia
LXX = Septuagint
MT = Masoretic Text
NA26 | 27 | 28 = Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th | 27th | 28th edition (Nestle- Aland)

NT
= New Testament
OT = Old Testament
TISCH = Novum Testamentum Graece (Tischendorf)
UBS4 | 5 = Greek New Testament, 4th | 5th edition (United Bible Society)
W&H = Greek New Testament (Westcott & Hort)
  
  
 

   
  
 



Biblical Resources: The Basics



Bibles
(English, mixed)

Collections


BibleGateway – NIV (1984), TNIV (2005), NIV (2010), NASB, MSG, AMP, NLT, KJV, ESV, CEV, NKJV, 21KJV, ASV, YLT, DARBY, NLV, HCSV, NIRV, WYCLIFFE, WE (NT), NIV–UK. Also available: Audio Bibles (Old Testament: ESV, KJV, NASB, NIV, TNIV; New Testament: CEV, ESV, KJV, NASB, NIV, TNIV) and translations into other languages

updated Biblia.com – © Logos Bible Software. "Biblia.com is your place for Bible study online. Part of a family of services from Logos Bible Software, it offers free access to a collection of Bibles and Bible reference works, with an easy user interface and powerful search engine." Everyone has access to numerous translations of Scripture and resources, but people who have purchased packages, libraries or books for Logos can logon using their Logos.com account and access most of their books online (from any computer). "Biblia.com is designed to make it easy to use a Bible side- by- side with helps and reference books. But underneath it is built on the same powerful platform as Logos Bible Software 4, the world's leading Bible software. Logos has been developing Bible software for nearly two decades. Today it is a team of more than 170 people offering more than 10,000 titles for Bible study; Biblia.com is our way of delivering all that experience and content to users who prefer a web interface." Quotes taken from a link that no longer exists

The Unbound Bible – NASB, NRSV, KJV, ASV, BEB, DARBY, DOUAY– RHEIMS, WEBSTER, WEYMOUTH (NT), WEB, YLT. Also available: Original languages (Hebrew: Westminster Liningrad Codex, Aleppo Codex; Greek: Byzantine / Majority Text, Textus Receptus, Tischendorf 8th ed., Westcott & Hort, Septuagint (OT)), and translations into other languages

Bible Study Tools – NASB, ASV, ESV, NKJV, KJV, HCSV, TMB, NIV, NLT, NRSV, RSV, GNT, DOUAY– RHEIMS, MSG, CJB, NCV, GW, HNV, WEB, BBE, YLT, TNIV, NIRV, DARBY, WEBSTER, WEYMOUTH (NT). Also available: Latin Vulgate. This was originally a part of Crosswalk.com, but has since been redesigned and made its own website

Blue Letter Bible – KJV, NKJV, NLT, NIV, ESV, NASB, RSV, ASV, YLT, DARBY, WEB, HNV. Also available: Latin Vulgate

 
Individual Translations


ESV Study Bible – ESV. © 2008 Crossway Bibles. Contains 2007 text, word / phrase search, and the voice of David Cochran Heath to read Scripture passages. Those who purchased the ESV Study Bible also have access to the study notes, articles, maps, charts and illustrations that appear in the printed copy

NET Bible Study Environment –  © 1996– 2011 Biblical Studies Press (BSP), L.L.C. and the authors. An outstanding resource featuring the NET Bible. "Features Include: Read the Biblical Text and the Associated NET Notes. Add your own notes to the selected chapter or verse (on the Notes Tab). Bookmark and label chapters and verses for future reference. Double click any word and choose to search the bible / Bible.org or look it up in dictionaries. Read the original Hebrew / Greek (mouse over words to see definition and part of speech in the bottom panel; click to lock in this information). View articles on the current passage. Click a verse to see it in parallel in multiple translation (on the Parallel Tab); see articles on that verse; see names / places in that verse. Print the biblical text— optionally with the NET notes and / or your own notes. Listen to audio on certain chapters— Currently, only in the NT, Psalms, and Proverbs." Also includes links to blogs, forums, labs, store and more. Available on Bible.org

Modern King James Version – ©  1962– 1998 Jay P. Green, Sr.

fixed link updated King James 2000 Version – © Robert A. Couric. The entire OT and NT are also available for download (PDF)

New Authorized Version – AV7. © 1973– 2011 New Authorized Version Foundation

dead link Illustrated King James Bible – KJV. Features literally hundreds of black and white woodcuts, drawings, and paintings
 
Revised Standard Version with Apocrypha – RSV. Old Testament © 1952; New Testament © 1946, 1971; Apocrypha / Deuterocanonical writings (includes 1 & 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, Baruch, Letter of Jeremiah, Song of Three Young Men, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, Prayer of Manasseh, 1 & 2 Maccabees) © 1957, 1977 Division of Christian Education of the National Council of Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Includes several search options

Douay– Rheims Bible – DOUAY– RHEIMS. Roman Catholic

fixed link updated New American Bible – NAB. © 1970, 1986, 1991, 2002 United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Roman Catholic. OT contains Apocryphal writings and additions. Available from The Vatican archive. See also the NAB from the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops website

new link New American Bible, Revised Edition – NABRE. © 2011 United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Roman Catholic. This revision of the NAB was published in March 2012. Most of the revisions are excellent (easier to follow and read, more literal (closer in meaning to the original text), it flows well in English, poetry sounds poetic, et al.). The only significant down side to the text is that the OT contains Apocryphal writings and additions. Otherwise, this appears to be a very good English translation. Today's Reading and daily audio readings are also available

The Brick Testament – © Brendan Powell Smith (an atheist). Features several Old and New Testament verses, creatively portrayed using lego

Darby Bible – Darby. © 1890 John Nelson Darby. Plymouth Brethren; Dispensational. Includes Darby's Bible Synopsis and On Ministry

Today's New International Version – TNIV. © 2005 International Bible Society. "Remaining unswervingly faithful to the original ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic biblical texts, the TNIV speaks to today's world in today's words." This claim, however, is not entirely true: It has been noted that at least 3,686 gender- related translation inaccuracies (2,776 in the Old Testament, 910 in the New Testament) have been found which were accurately translated in the 1984 NIV. "The changes here involve the removal of five words: 'father', 'brother', 'man', 'son', and 'he / him / his.' … These 2,776" Old Testament and 910 New Testament "examples therefore seem to us to be 'translation inaccuracies' that were included in the TNIV for the sake of producing a more 'gender neutral' or 'inclusive language' version of the Bible. Such rewording may seem more acceptable in today's secular culture, but it is not a more accurate way of translating the Word of God. There is a wrongful removal of male- oriented meaning in over 2,700 places in the Old Testament" and 910 places in the New Testament (see "A Complete List of 3,686 Inaccurate Translations in the TNIV," available on Internet Archive)

Cotton Patch Version – CPV. "A colloquial translation with a Southern accent." (Some may consider this translation offensive or heretical, a few may view it as twisted entertainment, while others may view it as a creative means of making the New Testament more accessible to unbelievers or believers)

The Recovery Version – RcV (NT). The translation itself seems okay, but its commentary should be used with caution since it is extremely biased toward problematic and even heretical beliefs (i.e., the teachings of Witness Lee and his 'Local Church' movement)

The Holy Bible, A Modern Translation – F. F. © 1908, 1966 Ferrar Fenton. Church of England (Anglican). Considered (by some) to be a scholar of Biblical languages, Fenton and his descendants do not claim him to be a scholar of Biblical languages, nor do they attribute any formal education in Biblical languages to his credit. Instead, Fenton claims his formal education was in commerce, while his Biblical 'education' was the result of reading unspecified books on a broad spectrum of subjects from an unspecified library. Fenton's understanding of the Hebrew and Greek languages and grammar is questionable (at best) since his translation contains numerous translation and grammatical errors throughout the Old and New Testaments. In addition, his attempts to 'correct' accurate translations with his erroneous translations (which he explains in footnotes) demonstrates that he often lacks a basic understanding of the Hebrew and Greek languages, their grammars, etc. Especially troubling is the statement in his introduction that "three accomplished scholars … advised and assisted in the revision of my versions"


updated The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures – NWT. © 2013 Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. This is an update to their 1984 version, based primarily on the Masoretic Text (MT) and the Westcott & Hort (W&H) Greek NT. However, the translation itself is extremely biased and is often bent on 'evidencing' the beliefs and doctrines of the Jehovah's Witnesses, which are unsupported by the MT, Septuagint (LXX), Greek NT, and proper understanding of the Hebrew / Aramaic and Greek grammars. Also available for download (EPub, PDF, MP3, AAC). Available from Watchtower

Inspired Version of the Bible – IV © Joseph Smith, Jr. (founder of The Church of Jesus Christ and Latter Day Saints; aka Mormons). This is "the Joseph Smith Translation of the King James Version of the Bible" which contains several modifications of the KJV, usually to reflect the beliefs and doctrines of Joseph Smith, which are unsupported by the MT, LXX, and Greek NT. The IV is also available from the Latter Day Saints

updated fixed link Concordant Version – CV © A. E. Knoch and Concordant Publishing Concern. The New Testament is a completed translation based on the W&H Greek NT combined with the NA26|27 variants, while the Old Testament (nearing completion) is a translation of the MT. The translation itself is problematic because of an erroneous method of interpretation which makes little distinction between words in the original languages and words in the English language (which often differ significantly): "For each Original word, then, we assign a STANDARD English word. To facilitate a readable English translation, additional synonyms or other concordant variants are also used, as needed. In nearly all cases, any such standards, synonyms, and variants are used exclusively for a single word in the Original, thereby eliminating almost all 'crosswiring' between languages. Thus a substantial formal correspondency is maintained between the original and receptor language" (emphasis in original). As a result, this translation does not always reflect what the original language conveys but often seems bent on 'evidencing' numerous erroneous or even heretical presuppositions and doctrines which are unsupported by the original languages. See their 'Expositions' section and other writings by A. E. Knoch, found elsewhere (available on Internet Archive). Also see Universalism under the Other Side of the Fence section (right column)



Ancient Languages
(Hebrew / Aramaic, Greek, Latin, Syriac, Coptic)



See under Bibles (below, in the Biblical Research: Advanced section)
 

Bible Software
   

freeware


e-Sword – © Rick Meyers. Includes KJV, several useful features, and offers dozens of free downloadable add- on modules in several languages (bibles, commentaries, dictionaries, etc.). Some commercial Bible modules are locked and need to be purchased, but they are very few in number since most publishers have graciously provided their copyrighted translations for free. This is an excellent free resource that is very user- friendly, has several great advantages including the ability to make your own modules (using Microsoft Access), and is useful for Greek studies since several free Greek Septuagint (LXX) and New Testament (Greek NT) modules are available— with or without Strong's Numbers— as well as some Greek parsing modules. Fortunately, the same support is now being developed and offered for the Hebrew / Aramaic Scriptures (a few Hebrew Bible modules are now available; none feature vowel markings but some now support Strong's Numbers and parsing, etc.). Suitable for Bible Study leaders and anyone interested in reading or learning God's Word

Additional e-Sword modules:
  • theChan Website – requires visitors to make an account before files can be downloaded. Includes several unique Bible modules in both English and Chinese (mostly Chinese modules)
  • e-Sword Module Database Library – an extensive collection of Bible (and other) modules; however, this site shows more interest in providing variety than orthodoxy. Be careful when downloading modules from here; while most Bibles are fine, some are problematic, erroneous or heretical. Beyond the Bible section, about half or more of the modules support or contain problematic, erroneous or heretical beliefs and teacings


fixed link The Word – © Costas Sturgiou. The Word is "designed to be a tool for everyday use, always running in the background and ready to respond whenever you need to look- up a verse, read the Bible, or study a passage or theme of the Bible in depth. It's quick to load, easy to customize and intuitive to use. We feel that its value and quality cannot be fully presented through a feature list, so we urge you to try it out. Each little detail has been carefully contemplated, designed and implemented with many options and customizations. This is exactly what makes people stick with The Word, once they give it a try. That's the best way to make up your mind too!" Suitable for Bible Study leaders and anyone interested in reading or learning God's Word

fixed link Theophilos – includes KJV, several useful features, and offers dozens of unlocked (freeware) and locked (buy- ware) downloadable modules in several languages (bibles, commentaries, dictionaries, etc.). Numerous commercial Bible modules are also locked and need to be purchased. Suitable for Bible Study leaders and anyone interested in reading or learning God's Word

Additional Theophilos modules:


The Sword Project – includes several useful features and offers free downloadable add- on modules (bibles, commentaries, dictionaries, etc.). Suitable for Bible Study leaders and anyone interested in reading or learning God's Word

fixed link updated WORDsearch BASIC (aka Bible Explorer) – © WORDsearch Corp. In the WORDsearch family, this product "is a free entry- level Bible software platform for anyone who desires to read and study God's Word. WORDsearch Basic doesn't include some of the more advanced bells and whistles you'll find in the paid version of WORDsearch 10, but you'll find that it does a lot! It has even been described as 'easy to use as a web browser.' Best of all, WORDsearch Basic will work with every product offered on our website. … As soon as WORDsearch Basic is on your desktop, come back to our website and click on the 'Free Books' tab at the top of every page. You'll find a selection of over 200 Bibles, commentaries, devotionals and other study tools that are yours for the taking. It's a great way to begin building your Bible reference library." Thousands of books are available, including products that are on sale. Available for PC, Mac, iPad / iPhone, and Android. This product is fairly similar to e-Sword in almost every way. Searching for Hebrew or Greek "words" is limited to the Strongs Number system and resources that use them. Suitable for Bible Study leaders and anyone interested in reading or learning God's Word

 
trialware


updated archived BibleSpeak – © Q-Software. Previously known as Q-WorkSpeak. Includes the KJV, "The Bible software that speaks!" Similar to e-Sword and supports most e-Sword modules (there are a few glitches with displaying some e-Sword commentary modules and the NA26|27 Bible module on my system), but looks nicer and features text- to- speech (works only for English texts), Gospel parallels, a "Bible Smart Editor" (an aid for preparing sermons et al.), the ability to display Greek texts "transliterated into Roman characters or as Greek characters," the option to "find all occurrences of a Greek or Hebrew word with a few mouse clicks," and some additional weekly Bible Study features designed primarily for Jehovah's Witnesses and their material. This software is inexpensive, fairly easy to use (not quite as easy as e-Sword, in my opinion), and has more features than e-Sword. However, it also has very few native modules and it does not have nearly as many features as the more expensive Bible software geared for scholars, pastors and seminarians (e.g., Logos Bible Software, BibleWorks, QuickVerse, et al.). Suitable for Bible Study leaders and anyone interested in reading or learning God's Word. A free 45- day trial version is available. PLEASE NOTE: The author of this software died in early 2011; it cannot be registered and there is no technical support. A backup of the site (2 Feb 2011) is available on Internet Archive


 
for Palm OS and Pocket PC


dead link Pocket e-Sword – freeware. All the features of the original e-Sword, but designed for Pocket PC. See above, under e-Sword. Please note: This product is no longer being developed or supported by the developer

 Additional Pocket e-Sword modules:
  • theChan Website – requires visitors to make an account before files can be downloaded. Includes several unique Bible modules in both English and in Chinese (mostly Chinese modules)

PalmBible+ – freeware. "Fast Display Engine; Cross- references (double- tap the verse number); Fast book selector, completely- Graffiti Goto; Fast (ARMlet) search engine with transliteration, stop and resume; Notes page for fast notetaking (with export to MemoPad); Built- in languages: Hebrew, Accented Greek, Interlinear Greek, 'Thin' font; Simultaneous Hebrew or accented Greek with Chinese; Large Font option; Copy word / verse / screen to clipboard; Snapshots for search and navigation; Highlighted bookmarks on color devices; Extensive Graffiti shortcuts; Footnote support; Drag Scrolling; Dual Version Display; Browser- like operation; Customizable Preferences; Sony CLIE HiRes+ (native!) and HiRes (with FontHack123); Palm Dynamic Input Area (320x480 and 480x320); Runs on Palm OS 3.5 and up; Dictionary lookup on double tap via Plucker Plugin Interface (PPI); Customizable Fonts"

Additional Bible+ modules:
  • theChan Website – requires visitors to make an account before files can be downloaded. Includes several unique Bible modules in both English and in Chinese (mostly Chinese modules)

Olive Tree Bible Software – designed for Palm OS and Pocket PC devices. Includes several features and offers unlocked (free) and locked downloadable add- on modules, including Bibles, Study Tools, Collections, Academic, Devotionals, and Christian e-Books

 
Noteworthy Alternatives
for pastors, seminarians, scholars, etc.


fixed link updated Logos Bible Software (aka Libronix Digital Library System) – © Logos Bible Software. Available for PC, Mac, iPad, iPhone, Android, Kindle Fire, and online (Biblia.org). Originally known as Logos, was renamed to Libronix for v2.x and v3.x, and from v4.x onward has called Logos Bible Software. This software features a whole new look and engine. Most features from Libronix (v3.x) have been relocated or integrated into many new features. The passage guide, exegetical guide and Bible word study have been dramatically improved and enhanced with many new features. The electronic library continues to grow with literally thousands of new and old copyrighted, public domain and out of print resources which can be purchased individually, in collections or in packages. Users who invest in v4.3 (or later) now have the ability to create their own books using MS-Word and Logos' Personal Book Builder. The powerful search engines from Libronix v3.x have been combined, simplified and sorted into basic, Bible, morph and syntax tabs with a variety of options to fine- tune your searches making Bible Study extremely informative and easy (packages include numerous tools, maps, pictures, etc. that make full use of the passage guide feature, plus you can create bulletins for printing, and easily copy images and text to Microsoft PowerPoint or Word). Sort resources into collections, highlight and add comments anywhere in your resources, make use of the new "read aloud" feature which (if you can tolerate the Microsoft voice) roughly "reads aloud" most English resources (it does not work with any language except English). You can search for words or phrases in any available language and unlocked resource (including BHS, BHQ, LXX, W&H, NA28, etc.). The mouseover parsing with morphology feature has been improved (for Hebrew / Aramaic, Greek, Syriac, Coptic, Latin, et al. resources with morphology, including BHS, BHQ, LXX, NA28, UBS4, etc.). You can right- click on words to examine their meaning, lemma, grammatical information, etc. from any available unlocked resource. Logos (4.x and 5.x) also has an automatic update feature (when online). Overall, this is an amazing resource. More details and information on its features are available online, and from the FAQs section and numerous video tutorials. A critical apparatus for BHS, BHQ and NA27 / UBS4 is available (also see the larger German Bible Society Bundle); pre- publication and base library discounts are likewise available, as well as other limited- time discounts on a variety of resources. The core system (not including base packages; see above links) and some resources are available for free. Designed specifically for pastors, seminarians, scholars, Bible Study leaders and anyone interested in studying God's Word in its depths and details

Additional Logos modules (to be announced; currently, user- built books only work on the computers they are compiled on).
  • link

                                            wanted name – description

BibleWorks – © BibleWorks. For many years, this was the best software on the market; however, this led them to become slack in developing new ideas and advancements, which resulted in the Libronix Digital Library System (aka Logos Bible Software) taking a powerful lead over them. Even so, this is (in my opinion) the second most powerful product on the market and is the only significant competition to Logos. The most recent release seems to have many features found in the Libronix Digital Library System (v3.x), with the exception that BibleWorks is much easier to learn and is initially more affordable. It also has fewer resources and a significantly smaller library overall, and also significantly less features (since the release of Logos v4.x). Designed for pastors, scholars, seminarians, Bible Study leaders, and anyone interested in learning God's Word. No trial version is available

fixed link updated WORDsearch – © WORDsearch Corp. In the WORDsearch family, this product is considered the 'big brother' of the other products and "is recognized as the leading Bible software 'serving those who who preach and teach to change lives.' " This product provides a basic (but relatively fast) boolean search engine, some interesting features (integration with MS- Word, internet sites using built- in browser, integration of some QuickVerse features, etc.), access to over 200 free books and over 4,500 add-on books (including CROSS e-books), and has several features that are similar to (but less powerful than) those found in Logos (v4.x) and BibleWorks. Unlike Bible Explorer and QuickVerse, this product offers the option to post messages directly to Facebook or Twitter, and includes a Greek language "Morph Explorer" (that requires the Greek Morphology Bundle to work) which appears to be limited to Greek resources that contain lemma, lexeme and parsing elements. Otherwise, like Bible Explorer and QuickVerse, it appears that all Hebrew / Aramaic and Greek searches, word studies, et al. are built around a simple boolean search engine that depends entirely upon Strongs Numbers (and perhaps on English resources and interlinears that use it). Unlike Logos and BibleWorks (in particular), it does not appear to be designed for intermediate and advanced users who delve deeper into the Hebrew / Aramaic and Greek languages (using the BHS, LXX, NA27, and similar resources) and who use more advanced features, search options, etc. for their research, studies, and sermon preparations. The flexibility of arranging the users' desktop work area also appears to be very limited. Boxed sets and pre- development deals are no longer available. Suitable for Bible Study leaders and anyone interested in reading or learning God's Word

fixed link updated QuickVerse – © WORDsearch Corp. In the WORDsearch family, this product is considered the 'adopted sibling' of WORDsearch. In 2011, this product was acquired by WORDsearch Corp. Like other WORDsearch products, it has a fully featured WORDsearch software engine that gives users full access to over 200 free books and over 4,500 add-on books (including CROSS e-books), and it is available for PC or Mac. This product is backwards compatible with some older QuickVerse resources and has several new features, including: "Faster Intelligent Searching," "Instant Verse Studies," "Topical Explorer," "Web Interface," "Better Desktop Organization," "Built- In Word Processor," "Expanded Parallel Bible," "Cross- Reference Explorer," "Talking Strong's Dictionary," and more. Based on the video outlining some of its features, it looks like the search engine may only be faster and a bit better than the one found in Bible Explorer. Searching for Hebrew / Aramaic or Greek "words" still appears to be limited to a simple boolean search engine that depends entirely upon Strongs Numbers (and perhaps on English resources and interlinears that use it). Unlike Logos and BibleWorks (in particular), it does not appear to be designed for intermediate and advanced users who delve deeper into the Hebrew / Aramaic and Greek languages (using the BHS, LXX, NA27, and similar resources) and who use more advanced features, search options, etc. for their research, studies, and sermon preparations. Suitable for Bible Study leaders and anyone interested in reading or learning God's Word

 
Other Alternatives
for home use and Bible study


iLumina – © Tyndale House Publishers. According to the website, this product is now "discontinued" and all technical support is now "expired"

Interlinear Scripture Analyzer / Concordant Version (NT) – © André de Mol. The description and screenshots of the Interlinear Scripture Analyzer look very impressive (unfortunately the software will not install on my computer). It includes KJV, BHS, W&H combined with the NA26|27 variants, Strong's Numbers support for the Greek NT only (support for the Hebrew language is in progress), and an unspecified Greek lexicon. Negatively, it has very few native modules since it was originally designed only to be used with the Concordant Version (see Bibles: Miscellaneous section, above), now offered separately. Available on Scripture4all

  

Daily Devotions
   

This section offers a variety of online Daily Devotions. These generally include one or more suggested Scripture readings for that day and a brief message which takes 60 seconds – 15 minutes to go through. Most people who use daily devotions routinely go through them as their day begins, but they can be used at any time of the day.

 
Confessional Lutheran


updated Portals of Prayer – Confessional Lutheran (LC–MS). Printed editions are available for purchase from Concordia Publishing House (CPH). The 90 second audio version is no longer available

updated Daily Devotion – Confessional Lutheran (LC–MS). Available from Lutheran Hour Ministries. An audio version (MP3) is available from weblink and a text archive is also available

updated Meyer Minute – Rev. Dr. Dale Meyer. Confessional Lutheran (LC–MS). The 90 second audio version is no longer available

fixed link By The Way – Rev. Dr. Paul Devantier. Confessional Lutheran (LC–MS). Only available in MP3 audio (60 seconds) from KFUO AM radio

updated Front Porch Parenting – © Dr. Mary Manz Simon. Confessional Lutheran (LC–MS). The 60 second audio program is no longer available. See link for more options

dead link updated Moments of Assurance – Rev. Mark Hawkinson. Confessional Lutheran (LC–MS). Weekly. This audio program is no longer available

 
Reformed


Our Daily Bread – Reformed (Particular Baptist). Available from RBC Ministries

My Upmost for His Highest – © Oswald Chambers. Reformed (Particular Baptist). Available from RBC Ministries

Strength for the Journey – Reformed (Particular Baptist). Also available in MP3 audio. Available from RBC Ministries

 
Arminian


Daily Devotion – © Harvest Ministries (Greg Laurie). Arminian (mixed). Available from Crosswalk.com

In Touch Daily Devotional – © Charles Stanley. Arminian (General Baptist). Available from Crosswalk.com

 
Undefined


fixed link updated Today's Creation Moments – © Creation Moments. Includes both transcript and an audio (MP3); an archive is also available. "Creation Moments is a nonprofit, … interdenominational Christian outreach. We serve individuals, students, churches, home schoolers and professionals by offering products that uphold the truth of God in creation. CMI exists to glorify God by presenting scientific evidence for the literal truth of the Bible." Available from Creation Moments

 
Collections


Devotionals – Available from Crosswalk.com

Devotionals – Available from Heartlight

Devotionals – Available from Back to the Bible
     

Reading the Bible in a Year
   

This section offers a variety of online reading plans for reading the Bible in a year.
  

BibleYear.com – © BibleYear.com. Offers five different reading plans (beginning to end, chronological, historical, New then Old, Old and New) for over 50 translations (19 in English). Select your reading plan from the translation of your choice, then when you plan to begin your plan (either the 1st or 15th of any month), and that's it. A page will then open with a list of daily readings for the year, according to your selected reading plan. An excellent resource!
     
 


English Language Resources



ESL Resources
(ESL = English as a Second Language)
 
Free Collections


Canada-ESL.com – © Canada-ESL.com. From the main page, resource sections include ESL Teacher Resources ("We make the ESL Teacher's life easier in the ESL classroom with free printable ESL Lessons, activities, games & more"); ESL Classroom Group Games; Conversational Slang and Idioms; Full Length English Lessons ("Most of these are excellent for one or two hour classes or even longer. There is enough material in each for hours of learning and practice"); Mini ESL Micro English Lessons; Common Mistakes in English; Writing in English; ESL Lesson Themes; Business / Transactional English; Phrasal / Irregular Verbs. Looks like a very good and useful website, plus all these resources are free

ESL Galaxy – © Futonge Nzembayie Kisito. "ESL Galaxy offers over 2368 free printable worksheets for ESL lesson plans and ESL Activities; and there are more additions every other day. The worksheets include: Board Games, Crosswords, Grammar worksheets, Vocabulary Worksheets, Theme or Topic lesson plans, Pronunciation, Survival English, Song and Video Activities, Word Search Puzzles, Festivals & Holiday Worksheets, Prefixes / Suffixes Word Formation, ESL conversation & Communicative Activities, Game and Writing Templates, Cloze & gap fill exercises, We also have ESL Games and ideas for ESL Classrooms, Powerpoint downloads, Matching & Collocations, Reading & Writing Exercises, Complete Lesson Plans." Lots of resources, and also includes a section on learning Mandarin Chinese

30 FREE online resources for teaching and learning ESL – © Anne Merritt (Matador Network). Thirty links to various levels of free ESL resources
 
 
Paid Access, Courses and Resources
 
 
ESL Library – © Red River Press. "ESL-Library is a resource site for language teachers. We are owned and managed by Red River Press Inc, a little online publishing company with great big ambition. We offer language teachers instant access to a huge collection of lesson plans and flashcards. Our site is set up as membership service. A paid membership gets teachers access to all of the content in the Lesson Plan Library and Flashcard Library sections" (About Us)

Canadian Resources for ESL – © Canadian Resources for ESL. Contains numerous books that can be purchased and photocopied without limit (with some exceptions): "1) Photocopy permission for a single purchasing school / site / address— Photocopies are for ESL / literacy students attending classes at the purchasing address. If you have 5 addresses, you’ll need to buy 5 books. 2) Photocopy permission for a purchasing teacher— Photocopies are for ESL / literacy students attending the purchasing teacher's classes. 3) We do not sell to resource centres that service more than one address. 4) We do not sell to libraries except when the library in located in a school and services that school / single site only. 5) We do not give permission for school boards to service more than one school / site from a single book. 6) We do not give permission for anyone to photocopy from a photocopy of the books"

ESL Mania – © ESLMANIA.COM. "ESL Mania is for adult learners & teachers. Here's your chance to learn new idioms, practice your grammar, improve your accent, get lessons in business English, read ESL book chapters, get teaching tips, and much more!" This site is divided into student and teacher resources (includes books, PDFs, audio, video, mobile applications and more), which can be purchased

English as a Second Language – © Capilano University (N. Vancouver, BC). Offers ESL courses to help learn intermediate through academic level English. A list of links to some useful free online resources is also available

ESL Resources Database – © Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language. "This database includes ESL resources which have been funded and developed in Alberta. It includes resources for teaching, assessment, and professional development, along with policy and research documents. It is hoped that this database will increase awareness of and access to ESL resources produced in Alberta, providing support to ESL programs and instructors as well as preventing duplication of projects. Where we are unable to host a document for download, we provide a web link to the hosting site or contact information regarding how the resource can be accessed." Also available is a secton on ESL Resources ("The following is a collection of resources to assist ATESL members as they provide ESL instruction. The list below includes websites that individual instructors have found to be beneficial and is provided for information only")— some of these resources are free, while others are not
 

Dictionaries & Encyclopedias
   

Dictionary & Thesaurus – © Merriam- Webster OnLine. Contains all the information from the most recent print edition and is continually updated

Encyclopædia Britannica – © . Contains all the information from the most recent print edition and is continually updated. This site offers a free 7- day trial period, but otherwise access is by paid subscription (annual or monthly)

Encyclopedia.com – "features premier titles like The Columbia Encyclopedia, Oxford's World Encyclopedia, and the Encyclopedia of World Biography. Plus, our online dictionary collection is an invaluable research tool with exhaustive information ranging from the general purpose Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English, to social science terms in A Dictionary of Psychology, to health- related nutrition definitions in A Dictionary of Food Nutrition. Encyclopedia.com offers millions of free articles, pictures, facts, and biographies along with information about topics like the arts, science, sports, medicine, accounting, and management. Encyclopedia.com is an ideal online reference source for researchers, students, educators, and professionals alike" (bold in original)

Roget's International Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases – © 1922 Peter Mark Roget. "Mawson's modernization of Roget's classic structure with over 85,000 hyperlinked cross- references and 2,900 quotations." Available on Bartleby.com

The Cambridge History of English and American Literature – © 1907– 1921.  An encyclopedia in 18 volumes. "Considered the most important work of literary history and criticism ever published, the Cambridge History contains over 303 chapters and 11,000 pages, with essay topics ranging from poetry, fiction, drama and essays to history, theology and political writing. The set encompasses a wide selection of writing on orators, humorists, poets, newspaper columnists, religious leaders, economists, Native Americans, song writers, and even non- English writing, such as Yiddish and Creole." Available on Bartleby.com

dead link Columbia Encyclopedia – no longer available on Bartleby.com
 
 
Translation Resources
 
 
Google Translate – © Google Inc. Translate websites or text (63 languages)

Bing Translator – © Microsoft Corp. The Yahoo! Babel Fish link now redirects us to Microsoft's Bing Translator. Translates websites or text (39 languages)

Text Translator – translation tool (12 languages); also available are an email translator and website translator (even translate your own website). Available on Applied Language Solutions
   

English Grammar
   

This section remains under construction.


link wanted
 

Academic Resources
   

When it comes to writing papers, there are several formats that are commonly used at colleges and universities. In general, the first format that most students will encounter and learn is MLA (Modern Language Association). This format is taught and used exclusively for writing papers at high schools throughout North America (and perhaps even in Europe). MLA, with few exceptions, is also the standard used to write a wide variety of papers, reports, articles, etc. for most courses and disciplines in college and university. Other formats are designed to meet specific needs that MLA is not equipped to handle. Thus, in Psychology, the standard format for writing research papers, reports, articles, etc. is known as APA (American Psychological Association).
   In religious studies and some other disciplines, the original standard for writing a variety of papers, reports, articles, etc. is known as Chicago (based on The Chicago Manual of Style). This exhaustive manual was later simplified by Kate L. Turabian, who released A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. This format, known as Turabian, soon replaced Chicago in most colleges and universities as a standard. In recent years, the Society of Biblical Literature released a new format (based on the Chicago Manual of Style) called SBL, which is specifically designed for worldwide use in academic and scholarly work in Biblical liturature.
   In writing scholarly papers, journals and books for publication, the format may vary depending on the topic, audience, professor, editor and publisher. While most professors or publishers are content with material written in the aforesaid formats, some require students or authors to follow a format that is either uniquely their own or slightly modified from MLA, APA, Chicago, Turabian or SBL.



updated MLA Style Guide (MLA) – © Modern Language Association. This format is the primarly standard for writing papers in all levels of education (especially in English courses). Style guides are available from Medicine Hat College Library (PDF), Concordia University Libraries, University of Victoria Libraries (PDF), and the University of British Columbia Libraries (PDF)

updated APA Style Guide (APA) – © American Psychological Association. This format is the primary standard for writing academic or scholarly papers in Psychology, but may be used in other academic or scholarly disciplines. Style guides are available from Concordia University Libraries, Okanagan College Library (PDF), and the University of British Columbia Libraries (PDF)

The Chicago Manual of Style – © University of Chicago. This exhaustive resource is the original standard for writing academic and scholarly papers (primarily in Biblical liturature and Religious Studies) and continues to be used in various disciplines; both The SBL Handbook of Style and A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations refer to this manual as a resource and fallback

A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian) – © 2007 Kate L. Turabian (Seventh edition; University of Chicago Press). A citation guide from University of Wisconsin– Parkside is also available (only in PDF). Often viewed as a simplified version of The Chicago Manual of Style, this format remains popular and is a standard for writing academic and scholarly papers in Biblical liturature and Religious Studies, but can also be used in other academic or scholarly disciplines

fixed link The SBL Handbook of Style (SBL) – © 1999 Hendrickson Publishers, Inc. Edited by Patrick H. Alexander, John F. Kutsko, James D. Ernest, Shirley Decker– Lucke, and David L. Petersen. An updated (2009) Student Supplement is also available (only in PDF), along with guidelines on preparing your printer- ready manuscript. Based on The Chicago Manual of Style, this is the new standard for writing academic and scholarly papers in Biblical liturature and Religious Studies, but may also be used in other academic or scholarly disciplines. See also the Publishing with SBL page on SBL's website

AAA Style Guide (AAA) – © American Anthropological Association. This guide uses The Chicago Manual of Style as a resource, but is not known to be a standard for any other academic or scholarly discipline. Available only in PDF
 
 
Collections
 
 
Citations Style Guide – © Concordia University College of Alberta. Links to several citation and style guides on the internet and in NEOS, and to information on Avoiding Plagarism. Formats include APA, MLA, Chicago / Turabian, SBL, ASA, CSE, and IEEE

Citations and Style Guides – © Concordia University Libraries. Links to several citation and style guides on the internet. Formats include APA, MLA, Turabian, Chicago, and others
 
 


Philosophy: The Art of Reasoning



History of Philosophy
   

As you may have noticed, this section remains under construction.


link wanted
  

Logic & Fallacies
   

Stephen's Guide to Logical Fallacies – © 1995– 2001 Stephen Downes. "Logical fallacies are errors of reasoning, errors which may be recognized and corrected by prudent thinkers. This site indexes and describes all known logical fallacies." A nicer looking mirror site is available on the Lightbucket blog
   

Dictionaries & Encyclopedias
   

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy – © 2004. "A dynamic reference work and is a publishing project of the Metaphysics Research Lab at the Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI) at Stanford University"
   
 
   

  
 
 
 

 
A note on colour schemes used here.

Some may wonder about the colour schemes that were first introduced in June 2006 and have been developing since then. In short, areas with

 blue background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively safe (orthodox) in content since they generally do not promote, advocate or defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous or heretical material (however, see disclaimer at top of this web page).

 red background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively dangerous (unorthodox) in content since they generally do promote, advocate and defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous and even heretical material. Included are resources from quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions, cults, agnosticism, atheism, philosophical religions, the occult and other (non- Christian) religions.


 purple background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively confused in content since they generally provide both safe (orthodox) and dangerous (unorthodox) material, but for whatever reason they do not make any distinction between them. (See disclaimer at top of page.) Included in this section are Bibles containing the Apocryphal (Deuterocanonical) writings.


Some may disagree with the colour schemes I have given to one or more resources, but that is to be expected. Also, for the sake of clarity, resources with blue backgrounds do not necessarily reflect my beliefs.


A quick guide to common graphics and their meaning.

new link – this is a newly added link

offlinethis link is active but its content is offline (see that website for more information)

dead linkthis link is no longer active or its content has been removed; if you find a link, please email it to me

link wanteda link could not be found with this content; if you find a link, please email it to me

fixed linkthe previous link to this content was broken (dead) but has been replaced with a link that works

updatedinformation about the content of this link has been updated

correctedinformation about the content of this link, section, or area was found to be in error and has been corrected

addedthis is a newly added section or area

modifiedinformation about this link, section or area has been modified (perhaps in an attempt to make it more clear)

renamed – the link remains the same, but the title (and perhaps the content) has been modified

archived – the original link is no longer active or its content has been removed, but has been replaced with a link to a backup copy (perhaps from a mirror site or the Internet Archive)

internal linkthis is an internal link (to something available on dialegomai)
  


Canadian

 



Biblical Resources: Intermediate



Dictionaries, Cyclopedias, Encyclopedias
   

This section features several Christian dictionaries, cyclopedias, and encyclopedias. While many of these resources are so old that they have become public domain, some are more recent and have been graciously provided by their editors and publishers.

  
Dictionaries


King James Dictionary – a useful list of "over 800 words whose definitions have changed since 1611" and their modern meanings. Available from Crosswalk.com

fixed link updated Study Dictionary – contains over 33,400 definitions from multiple resources, including Hitchcock's Bible Names, Nave's Topical Bible, New Bible Dictionary, Smith's Bible Dictionary, International Standard Bible Dictionary, and Strong's Greek & Hebrew Lexicon. See also the NET Bible Study Environment (which is an outstanding resource). Available from Bible.org

Easton's Bible Dictionary – © 1897 Matthew George Easton. Available from Crosswalk.com

Hitchcock's Bible Names – © 1869 Roswell D. Hitchcock. Available from Crosswalk.com

Smith's Bible Dictionary – © 1860 William Smith. Available from Crosswalk.com

A Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D., with an Account of the Principle Sects and Heresies – © 1999 Henry Wace and William C. Piercy. An outstanding, informative, and detailed resource on both people (orthodox and heretical) and literature (including from certain councils) of the first six hundred years. Available from Christian Classics Ethereal Library

A Dictionary of African Christian Biography – © 2002 Dictionary of African Christian Biography. "Recording the untold stories of African Christians who have transformed Africa and the Christian world"

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology – © 1996, edited by Walter A. Elwell. Arminian (General Baptist). Available from Crosswalk.com

Dictionary of Theology – Arminian (General Baptist). Available from Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM)

Postmodern Bible Dictionary – © 1996– 2005 Tim Bulkeley

 
Cyclopedias


Christian Cyclopedia – © 2000. Confessional Lutheran. Emended, corrected, and expanded internet version of the 1954 / 1975 (revised) Lutheran Cyclopedia, originally published by Concordia Publishing House (CPH). Available from Lutheran Church– Missouri Synod (LC–MS)

 
Encyclopedias


Web Bible Encyclopedia – © Matthew G. Easton, etc. Available from ChristianAnswers.Net

renamed fixed link CCEL Search Engines – primarily Calvinist. This link was originally called World Wide Encyclopedia of Christianity, but this was meant to be a description rather than a title. This search engine is designed to help users find words and phrases, titles and authors, definitions, Scripture references and commentaries, etc. in various resources available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL)

International Standard Bible Encyclopædia – © 1913 Eerdmans. James Orr, General Editor. Reformed (Presbyterian). Available from Blue Letter Bible
 
The New Schaff– Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, vols 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 (index), dictionary – © 1953, edited by Philip Schaff. Reformed. Available in HTML, in UTF-8 (unicode), PDF, and in other formats from Christian Classics Ethereal Library

Catholic Encyclopedia – © 1917. Roman Catholic. Available from New Advent. See also the 1914 edition from CatholiCity
 
dead link Jack Van Impe's Dictionary of Prophecy Terms – © 1998 Jack Van Impe. Dispensationalism. A "unique perspective on prophecy and the end times." No longer available from Crosswalk.com

   

Historical Context & Commentaries
   

Historical Context


See under Historical Context (right column, in the History: Past & Present section)

 
Commentaries


World Wide Study Bible – numerous authors have contributed to the commentaries found in this resource. Reformed. Available from Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL)

The Fourfold Gospel – © John William McGarvey and Philip Yancey Pendleton. Churches of Christ (Restoration Movement). Available from Crosswalk.com

David Guzik's Commentaries on the Bible – © David Guzik. Available from StudyLight.org

James Burton Coffman's Commentaries: Whole Bible – © James Burton Coffman. Copyright negotiations were successful and this resource is now available again, from StudyLight.org

Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament – © 1930– 1933 Sunday School Board of the Southern Baptist Convention (by A. T. Robertson). Arminian (General Baptist). Available from Crosswalk.com

Illustrated New Testament – © John Steven Cabot Abbott and Jacob Abbott. Congregationalist. Available from StudyLight.org

Adam Clarke Commentary – © Adam Clarke. Arminian (Methodist). Available from StudyLight.org

The People's New Testament – © 1891 Barton Warren Johnson. Churches of Christ (Restoration Movement). Available from BibleStudyGuide.org

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible – © 1871 Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David Brown. Church of England (Anglican). Available from Crosswalk.com

Barne's Notes on the New Testament – by Albert Barnes. Reformed (Presbyterian). Available from StudyLight.org

John Gill's Exposition of the Bible – by John Gill. Reformed (Particular Baptist). Available from Crosswalk.com

Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary – by Matthew Henry (concise). Reformed (Presbyterian). Available from BibleStudyGuide.org

Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible – 1706– 1721 by Matthew Henry (complete). Reformed (Presbyterian). Available from BibleStudyGuide.org

John Lightfoot's Commentary on the Gospels – by John Lightfoot. Reformed. Available from StudyLight.org

Geneva Study Bible – 1599. Reformed (Calvinist). Available from Crosswalk.com

John Calvin's Commentaries – John Calvin (complete). Reformed (Calvinist). Available from BibleStudyGuide.org
 
John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible – 1754– 1765 by John Wesley. Arminian (Wesleyan / Methodist). Available from Crosswalk.com

updated Bible Commentaries – a large collection of Old and New Testament commentaries (listed by author), some are not listed above. These contributors include: Anonymous or miscellaneous; Norman Anderson; George André; George Bell; J. G. Bellett; Max Billeter; J. S. Blackburn; A. E. Bouter; Hugo Bouter; Jeff Brett; Ernie Brown; R. K. Campbell; H. F. G. Cole; E. N. Cross; J. N. Darby; George Davison; Edward Dennett; W. W. Fereday; A. C. Gaebelein; A. E. Goodwin; F. W. Grant; Leslie M. Grant; Michael Hardt; H. L. Heijkoop; F. B. Hole; H. A. Ironside; William Kelly; C. Knapp; C. H. Mackintosh; Andrew Miller; Morrish Concise Bible Dictionary; Jean Muller; D. W. Paterson; Greg Quail; Arend Remmers; Henri Rossier; W. Scott; Hamilton Smith; Charles Stanley; L. A. Stassel; C. E. Stuart; G. F. Vallance; E. P. Vedder; Martin Vedder; H. J. Vine; Michael Vogelsang; Frank Wallace; and W. T. P. Wolston. Available from the Biblecentre
 
John Darby's Synopsis of the New Testament – by John Darby. Plymouth Brethren; Dispensationalism. Available from Crosswalk.com

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge – © R. A. Torrey. Congregationalist; Dispensationalism. Available from StudyLight.org

Scofield Reference Notes – © 1917 C. I. Scofield. Congregationalist; Dispensationalism. Available from Crosswalk.com
  

Millennium Dawnism


Studies in the Scriptures – © 1916 Charles Taze Russell. Millennium Dawnism. Available from the North Seattle Bible Students


Judaism


Babylonian Talmud – Judaism. Includes a readable scanned image of each page (in Hebrew) and an audio commentary, which is available in English (includes Hebrew which is then translated and explained), Ou and Yiddish. Each audio commentary is available in several audio formats (MP3 / WMA / RA). Also includes some other useful links. Available from E-DAF.com
  
   

Dead Sea Scrolls & Biblical Papyri
   

Dead Sea Scrolls


see under Old Testament and Intertestimental (right column, in Archæology section)
 

Biblical Papyri


see under New Testament and Early Church (right column, in Archæology section)
 
   


History: Past & Present



General Information
   

This section also remains under construction. Some ideas for this section include links that answer the question of "What is History?" and the different ways history can be determined and distinguished from things like myth (addressed below) or post- modernism, and how new ideas (like feminism, changing views on human sexuality, etc.) can influence or change the way we look at history. If you know any links or have any suggestions, please send me an email.


link wanted
  

Ancient and Early History
(until mid- 2nd century CE)

This section contains various (specific) ancient and early historical writings up until the mid- second century (common era). If you are looking for something that is more general or broad, then see under Historical Context (in this column and section).


Nations


Egyptian


link wanted


Hittite


link wanted


Canaanite


link wanted


Mesopotamian


link wanted


Philistine


link wanted


Assyrian


link wanted


Babylonian


link wanted


Persian


link wanted


Greek


link wanted


Roman


link wanted


Individuals


Homer
ca. 9th century B.C.E.


link wanted  Iliad – ©


Herodotus
historian, ca. 484– ca. 420 B.C.E.



link wanted  History – ©


Thucydides
historian, d. ca. 401 B.C.E.


link wanted  History – ©


Plato
philosopher, 428– 348 B.C.E.



link wanted


Demosthenes
orator & statesman, 384– 322 B.C.E.



link wanted


Caesar
emperor, 100– 44 B.C.E.



Gallic War – © 1869. Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (Harper's New Classical Library; 1st edition; New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869). Available from Perseus Digital Library


Livy
(Titus Livius)
historian, 59 B.C.E.– 17 C.E.



History of Rome – the Latin collection has at least 140 books (books 46140 are mostly epitomes and fragments), but the following English translations are available from Perseus Digital Library:

Philo of Alexandria
(Philo Judaeus)
Jewish philosopher, ca. 15 B.C.E.– 50 C.E.



Philo of Alexandria – © Torrey Seland. A continually updated collection of links and resources related to Philo of Alexandria. Available from Resource Pages for Biblical Studies


Thalius
Samaritan historian, wrote ca. 52 C.E.


link wanted  Histories – ©


Josephus
Jewish historian, 37– 100 C.E.


The Works of Josephus – includes Antiquities of the Jews, War of the Jews, the Life of Flavius Josephus (autobiography), Josephus' Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades and Flavius Josephus Against Apion. Available from Wesley Center Online


Cornelius Tactitus
Roman historian, 56– 120 C.E.



link wanted  Annals – ©


Pliny the Younger
(Gaius Caecilius Pliny Secundus)
governor of Bithynia in Asia Minor, 61– 113 C.E.



link wanted  Natural History – ©
     

Historical Context
(Bible and Early Church)

Anyone who has read the Old and New Testaments of the Bible will have read that every nation and people of the earth— regardless of their current nationality, race, colour or religious beliefs— are descendants of Adam and Eve (the first humans created). We also read about the many tribes, kingdoms and nations that developed along side God's chosen people. This section is designed to provide readers with more information on those "other" tribes, kingdoms and nations that developed along side of God's chosen people, and perhaps even fought with or against them.


Collections


Ancient Hebrew Research Center – © Ancient Hebrew Research Center. "Teaching the Ancient Biblical Hebrew Language of the Bible Through the Study of the Ancient Hebrew Alphabet, Culture and Thought"

Bible History Online – "the focus … is history and the Bible." An excellent resource that also features "The Bible Knowledge Accelerator"

Documents on the Persecution of the Early Church – features numerous extra- biblical accounts of Christian persecution from secular writers such as Pliny the Younger, Tacitus, Minucuis Felix, and others

History of the Christian Church, vols 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 – © Philip Schaff. Reformed. Available in HTML, UTF-8 (unicode), PDF, and in other formats from Christian Classics Ethereal Library


The Ancient Egypt Site – "a constantly evolving interactive book about the history, language and culture of Ancient Egypt. It can easily be accessed by topic or by keyword"

Ancient Greece – features art and architecture, geography, time periods (history), mythology, olympics, people, wars, culture & society, and other resources having to do with Ancient Greece

Pompeii: Insula – an excellent resource for anyone curious about housing in New Testament times. "This website is intended to offer a sampling of selected material from the British School at Rome's Pompeii Project, studying an excavated block of houses (Insula 9) in Region I"

The Schøyen Collection – © Martin Schøyen. A collection of "740 manuscripts spanning 5000 years" featuring Bibles, history, literature, palaeography, and other useful resources
 

Collections (Mixed)
Biblical, historical, and other early resources
(includes homologumena, antilegomena, spurious and heretical writings)



Early Jewish Writings – includes the Old Testament, the Dead Sea Scrolls, deuterocanonical and pseudepigraphal writings, the Tulmud, and the writings of Philo of Alexandria and Flavius Josephus

Early Christian Writings – includes the New Testament, apocryphal and Gnostic writings, the Church Fathers, as well as historically significant secular writings

Anno Domini: Jesus Through the Centuries – © Virtual Museum Canada. "The virtual edition of Anno Domini: Jesus Through the Centuries is the result of a lengthy and fruitful partnership between The Provincial Museum of Alberta, Alberta Community Development, and the Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN). It is part of a larger project that includes a major physical exhibition that opened at The Provincial Museum of Alberta in Edmonton in October 2000" (italics in original). Please note: As of June 2005, "The Provincial Museum of Alberta" has been renamed "The Royal Alberta Museum" by authority of Queen Elizabeth II. Available from Virtual Museum Canada


Book Resources
(miscellaneous readings)


Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament : Introducing the Conceptual World of the Hebrew Bible – © John H. Walton (Baker Academic, 2006)

Old Testament Parallels : Laws and Stories from the Ancient Near East – © Victor H. Matthews and Don C. Benjamin (Paulist Press, 2006)
   
  
Myths, Fables & Fairy Tales
 

So where do myths, fables and fairy tales fit in? Are they also historical? It should be noted that all myths, fables and fairytales are written within history and often reflect (to some degree) events, thoughts, insights, beliefs, superstitions or hypothetical situations from a certain time period.
   Myths are generally understood to be based on a real historical person, place, event or thing which over time has been modified considerably, often with fanciful additions and select oversights which transform the subject and the story involving the subject into something worth telling (inspirational, or to learn from their mistakes).
   Fables are fanciful stories or parables that are obviously not intended to be historical, but are intended to provide the hearer with a moral or something to consider when dealing with certain people or situations.
   Fairy tales are generally surreal fiction stories that are often designed to entertain, but sometimes have a moral to them.



Myths

Sumerian Period
(ca. 2600 B.C.E.– 2359 B.C.E.)


The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature – © 2003– 2006 The ETCSL project, Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Oxford. "Sumerian is the first language for which we have written evidence and its literature the earliest known. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL), a project of the University of Oxford, comprises a selection of nearly 400 literary compositions recorded on sources which come from ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) and date to the late third and early second millennia BCE. The corpus contains Sumerian texts in transliteration, English prose translations and bibliographical information for each composition. The transliterations and the translations can be searched, browsed and read online using the tools of the website. Funding for the ETCSL project came to an end in the summer of 2006 and no work is currently being done to this site or its contents."

link wanted Song of the Hoe –

link wanted Hymn to E-engura –

link wanted Enki and Ninmah –

link wanted KAR –


Akkadian Period
(ca. 2350 B.C.E.– 2150 B.C.E.)


link wanted  Atrahasis –

link wanted  Gilgamesh –

link wanted  Enuma Elish –


Ur III Period
(ca. 2150 B.C.E.– 2000 B.C.E.)


link wanted Code of Shulgi –


Amorite Period
(ca. 2000 B.C.E.– 1800 B.C.E.)


link wanted


Hammurabi
(ca. 1792 B.C.E.– 1750 B.C.E.)


link wanted Code of Hammurab –


Kassites, Hittites, Hurrians, Ugarit
(ca. 1600 B.C.E.– 1155 B.C.E.)


link wanted  Aqhat –

link wanted  Kirta –


Neo- Assyrian Period
(934 B.C.E.– 610 B.C.E.)


link wanted


Neo- Babylonian Period
(626 B.C.E.– 539 B.C.E.)


link wanted


Persian Period
(ca. 550 B.C.E.– 330 B.C.E.)


link wanted


Egyptian
Early Dynastic Period, Old and New Kingdoms
(ca. 2920 B.C.E.– 332 B.C.E.)



link wanted  Shabaka Stela –

link wanted  Anubis and Beta –

link wanted  Pyramid Texts –

link wanted  Coffin Texts –

link wanted  Instruction of Merikare –

link wanted  Book of the Dead –


Israelite
Pseudepigraphal and Apocryphal
(ca. 630 B.C.E.– 134 C.E.)


See under Pseudepigraphal & Non- Canonical Writings (below, in the Other Side of the Fence section)
 
  
Hellenistic (Greek) and Roman Periods
(332 B.C.E.– 313 C.E.)


Greek Mythology.com – features "information on all subjects of Greek Mythology, including details on Greek Gods and Greek Goddesses, Greek Myths and Greek Heroes like Achilles and Hercules. It also has full text of  Greek Mythology and Literature books. You can freely use all information in this site for term papers, research papers, college essays and homework papers"

Who's Who in Greek Mythology  – an informative website that allows people to read Greek myths, hear Greek myths and more. Available on the Ancient Greece (for Kids) website


Early Christian Period
Pseudepigraphal and Apocryphal
(ca. 27 C.E.– 600 C.E.)



See under Pseudepigraphal & Non- Canonical Writings (below, in the Other Side of the Fence section)
  
  
Fables


Aesop's Fables – "includes a total of 655+ Fables, indexed in table format, with morals listed. There are many more on the way. Most were translated into English by Rev. George Fyler Townsend (1814– 1900) and Ambrose Bierce (1842– 1914) the rest are from Jean De La Fontaine in French and translated to English by several good internet souls"


Fairy Tales


Grimm Fairy Tales – "folk and fairy tales by the Brothers Grimm. Read and hear interactive, narrated, animated stories. Children's literature and folklore classics featuring animals, princesses, magic, and fabulous creatures! Grimm Brothers cartoon characters present a biography of Jacob Ludwig Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm. Online books link to e-learning, colouring downloads, arts, flash games, and other kidstuff"

The Hans Christian Andersen Center – © Institute of Literature, Media and Cultural Studies at the University of South Denmark. "As a unit at the University of South Denmark, our center specializes in research and information on matters related to Hans Christian Andersen. The centre was established in 1988. Hans Christian Andersen (1805– 1875), the world- famous Danish author, whose work has been translated into almost 150 languages, was born in Odense— then Denmark's second largest town, today the third largest. The first 14 years of his life were spent in this town, which provided him with subject matter for several of his fairy- tales, as well as for parts of novels, memoirs and plays. For this reason, the Hans Christian Andersen Center is ideally located at the University of Southern Denmark. In Odense you will also find the museums Hans Christian Andersen's House and Hans Christian Andersen's Childhood Home. The extensive interest for Hans Christian Andersen, not only within Denmark but also internationally, encompasses both the man and the writer: His fairy- tales (210 in total), autobiographies (3), travel journals (5), novels (6) etc., his personal connections with the arts, music and theatre of the time, and not least Andersen as a point of departure today regarding children's reading and drawing, illustrators, puppet films, cartoons, movies, stage productions, ballets, operas etc. Also significant is the use of Hans Christian Andersen in the tourist industry"


Collections


Fables, Fairy Tales, Stories and Nursery Rhymes – includes selections from Aesop's Fables, Hans Christian Andersen, Grimm's Fairy Tales, Lewis Carroll, Carlo Collodi, Mother Goose and Nursery Rhymes

SurLaLune Fairy Tales – "features 49 annotated fairy tales, including their histories, similar tales across cultures, modern interpretations and over 1,500 illustrations"
    
  



 
 
 

 
A note on colour schemes used here.

Some may wonder about the colour schemes that were first introduced in June 2006 and have been developing since then. In short, areas with

 blue background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively safe (orthodox) in content since they generally do not promote, advocate or defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous or heretical material (however, see disclaimer at top of this web page).

 red background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively dangerous (unorthodox) in content since they generally do promote, advocate and defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous and even heretical material. Included are resources from quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions, cults, agnosticism, atheism, philosophical religions, the occult and other (non- Christian) religions.


 purple background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively confused in content since they generally provide both safe (orthodox) and dangerous (unorthodox) material, but for whatever reason they do not make any distinction between them. (See disclaimer at top of page.) Included in this section are Bibles containing the Apocryphal (Deuterocanonical) writings.


Some may disagree with the colour schemes I have given to one or more resources, but that is to be expected. Also, for the sake of clarity, resources with blue backgrounds do not necessarily reflect my beliefs.


A quick guide to common graphics and their meaning.

new link – this is a newly added link

offlinethis link is active but its content is offline (see that website for more information)

dead linkthis link is no longer active or its content has been removed; if you find a link, please email it to me

link wanteda link could not be found with this content; if you find a link, please email it to me

fixed linkthe previous link to this content was broken (dead) but has been replaced with a link that works

updatedinformation about the content of this link has been updated

correctedinformation about the content of this link, section, or area was found to be in error and has been corrected

addedthis is a newly added section or area

modifiedinformation about this link, section or area has been modified (perhaps in an attempt to make it more clear)

renamed – the link remains the same, but the title (and perhaps the content) has been modified

archived – the original link is no longer active or its content has been removed, but has been replaced with a link to a backup copy (perhaps from a mirror site or the Internet Archive)

internal linkthis is an internal link (to something available on dialegomai)
  
 
   



Biblical Resources: Advanced



Ancient Languages & Fonts
   

Hebrew / Aramaic Languages


renamed Hebrew Root Word Studies – © Ancient Hebrew Research Center. Available from Ancient Hebrew Research Center

History of the Hebrew Language – © David Steinberg. A detailed and informative resource addressing the history of the Hebrew language
  

Greek Language


fixed link renamed updated A Concise Overview of the History of the Greek Language – © 2002, 2009 greek- language.com. An excellent resource for anyone interested in a brief yet informative history of the Greek language from earliest accounts to modern Greek. Includes links to blogs, bookstore, dictionaries, forums, learn Greek, manuscripts and more

The Greek Language – © 2000 Translexis Ltd. An excellent introduction to the history of the Greek language, from its earliest accounts to the development of modern Greek. Includes pictures. Available from Translexis Limited

dead link History of the Greek Language – © 1999– 2004 Marc Huys. Features a collection of links to resources addressing the history of the Greek language and alphabet. Available from Greek Grammar on the Web

    
Greek Literature


Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) – "Founded in 1972 the TLG represents the first effort in the Humanities to produce a large digital corpus of literary texts. Since its inception the project has collected and digitized most texts written in Greek from Homer (8 c. B.C.) to the fall of Byzantium in AD 1453 and beyond. Its goal is to create a comprehensive digital library of Greek literature from antiquity to the present era. TLG research activities combine the traditional methodologies of philological and literary study with the most advanced features of information technology. … Today the Online TLG contains more than 100 million words from 9,958 works associated with 2,314 authors and is constantly updated and improved with new features and texts. The full corpus is available to more than 2,000 subscribing institutions and thousands of individuals in 58 countries worldwide" (see original text). Three areas are available, one for subscribers and two for non- subscribers (TLG Canon and Abridged Online TLG). A collection of Greek fonts (needed to view the texts) are also available
  

Ancient Language Fonts
mainly Hebrew / Aramaic and Greek fonts


Fonts for Scholars, Academics, and Students – numerous ancient language fonts "designed for the classroom or for publications where original scribal or epigraphic script would be more desireable than transcriptions"

GoldenWeb.it Fonts – literally thousands of fonts, most of them using the standard North American alphabet

SIL Fonts for Downloading – "SIL International has produced several font sets over the years that allow for the transcription of linguistic data using the International Phonetic Alphabet. This page should help the user to decide whether to use Unicode fonts or whether to use the SIL IPA or SIL IPA93 fonts. It provides links to many relevant resources with regard to the International Phonetic Alphabet"

Wazu Japan's Gallery of Unicode Fonts – and excellent collection of links to dozens of language and font types, including a collection of links to Hebrew, Greek, Polytonic Greek, Coptic, Syriac, and other fonts


Commonly Used Fonts


Doulos SIL – designed "to provide a single Unicode- based font family that would contain a comprehensive inventory of glyphs needed for almost any Roman- or Cyrillic- based writing system, whether used for phonetic or orthographic needs. In addition, there is provision for other characters and symbols useful to linguists. This font makes use of state- of- the- art font technologies to support complex typographic issues, such as the need to position arbitrary combinations of base glyphs and diacritics optimally"

Charis SIL – designed "to provide a single Unicode- based font family that would contain a comprehensive inventory of glyphs needed for almost any Roman- or Cyrillic- based writing system, whether used for phonetic or orthographic needs. In addition, there is provision for other characters and symbols useful to linguists. This font makes use of state- of- the- art font technologies to support complex typographic issues, such as the need to position arbitrary combinations of base glyphs and diacritics optimally"

Ezra SIL (Hebrew Unicode) – "a typeface fashioned after the square letter forms of the typography of the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS), a beautiful Old Testament volume familiar to Biblical Hebrew scholars. The Ezra SIL font is an OpenType 'smart' font. It is designed to work with Office 2003 and above"

SBL Biblical Fonts – links to SBL Hebrew, SBL Greek, and Legacy SP fonts (including SP Ionic, etc.)

fixed link Teknia Fonts – includes the Teknia Hebrew and Teknia Greek fonts. Available from Teknia Software

Galatia SIL (Greek Unicode) – contains "most of the symbols defined in Unicode 3.1 for Latin-1, Greek (excluding Coptic), Macintosh Character Set (US Roman), and 850WE / Latin-1 and are supplied in Regular and Bold weights"

Gentium SIL (Greek Unicode) – "a typeface family designed to enable the diverse ethnic groups around the world who use the Latin and Greek scripts to produce readable, high- quality publications. It supports a wide range of Latin- based alphabets and includes glyphs that correspond to all the Latin ranges of Unicode. The design is intended to be highly readable, reasonably compact, and visually attractive. The additional ‘extended' Latin letters are designed to naturally harmonize with the traditional 26 ones. Diacritics are treated with careful thought and attention to their use. Gentium also supports both polytonic and monotonic Greek, including a number of alternate forms. Expansion of the character set to include more extended Latin glyphs (Unicode 5.1), archaic Greek symbols, and full Cyrillic script support is underway." A full version (described above, unicode) and basic version (limited to Latin characters) are available

New Athena Unicode – "New Athena Unicode is a freeware multilingual font distributed by the American Philological Association. It follows the latest version of the Unicode standard and includes characters for English and Western European languages, polytonic Greek, Coptic, Old Italic, and Demotic Egyptian transliteration, as well as metrical symbols and other characters used by classical scholars"

Apparatus SIL Fonts – "designed to provide most of the symbols needed to reproduce the textual apparatus found in major editions of Greek & Hebrew biblical texts"
 

Bibles
(Hebrew / Aramaic, Greek, Latin, Syriac, Coptic)

Hebrew / Aramaic


new link Oxford Hebrew Bible (OHB) – © Oxford University Press. "The Oxford Hebrew Bible will be a new critical edition of the Hebrew Bible featuring a critical text, apparatus, and text- critical introduction and commentary. Each book of the Hebrew Bible will be addressed in a separate volume, published by Oxford University Press, with a single volume each for the Minor Prophets, the Megillot, and Ezra- Nehemiah. This project represents a departure from the other major textual editions (the Biblia Hebraica Quinta and the Hebrew University Bible), which are diplomatic editions." According to Ronald Hendel ("The Oxford Hebrew Bible : Prologue to a New Critical Edition"), the OHB will be an "eclectic editio critica maior" since its apparatus aims to be comprehensive by addressing all substantive textual variants

link wanted Hebrew University Bible (HUB) – © Hebrew University of Jerusalem; edited by Shemaryahu Talmon. This edition is based on the superior Aleppo Codex and its masora (unfortunately, parts of the codex were lost in a fire during a riot in 1947). This edition began in 1955 under the late Moshe Goshen- Gottstein (who was succeeded by Chaim Rabin, and then by Talmon), and will be "a complete scientific edition of the Bible, recording textual variants from the ancient Greek and Latin versions, the Syriac Peshitta, the Aramaic targums, the Qumran Scrolls, Rabbinic literature and Medieval biblical manuscripts, including the Cairo Genizah. This Bible will be the product of many years of study by leading Hebrew University scholars, and when completed will be the most comprehensive extant edition of the Bible. HUBP publishes Textus, a scientific journal dedicated exclusively to the topic of textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible." According to Ronald Hendel ("The Oxford Hebrew Bible : Prologue to a New Critical Edition"), Adrian Schenker considers the HUB to be an editio critica maior since its apparatus attempts to address as many textual variants as possible

new link Biblia Hebraica Leningrad (BHL) – © 2000 Brill Academic Publishers, © 2001 Hendrickson Publishing; edited by Aron Dotan. "This is not a photographic reproduction, but a reprinting of the text with modern Hebrew fonts." This edition of the Leningrad Codex (ca. 1008– 1009) "presents a thoroughly revised, reset, and redesigned edition of the Hebrew Bible meticulously prepared by renowned masoretic scholar Aron Dotan. The BHL includes features that suit it for research, classroom, and liturgical use. Scholars will find this a welcome edition of the Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible, whose text and layout it precisely follows. A foreword and five appendices provide the researcher with important details and distinctions about the codex. In addition to being a scientific edition, it was originally commissioned in Israel to follow the necessary adaptations that qualify it for Jewish liturgical use, such as divisions into weekly portions and their subdivisions for synagogue reading. Students, too, will find here an ideal text for classroom use, with an uncluttered format and printing that is matchless for its readability." Hardcovers of the BHL, published by Brill Academic Publishers and Hendrickson Publishing, are available online

new link Biblia Hebraica Quinta (BHQ) – © 2001– ca. 2020 Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. This fifth edition of Biblia Hebraica is a work in progress (i.e. fascicles of different books or collections are released as they are completed). When all fascicles of the BHQ are completed (ca. 2020), a compilation will be published to supersede the fourth edition of Biblia Hebraica (BHS). This edition is based on the Leningrad Codex, but the text has been corrected using recent colour photographs of this codex. According to Ronald Hendel ("The Oxford Hebrew Bible : Prologue to a New Critical Edition"), Adrian Schenker considers the BHQ to be an editio critica minor since its apparatus is selective rather than comprehensive. Unlike previous editions, BHQ includes the Masorah magna, a commentary that explains the Masorah along with significant textual variants, and henceforth its apparatus will rarely cite variants from Hebrew manuscripts collated by Kennicott and Ginsburg— thus it will follow the work of Moshe Goshen- Gottstein)

new link Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) – © 1977, 1997 Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (i.e. Württembergische Bibelanstalt before 1981). This fourth edition of Biblia Hebraica superseded the third edition of Biblia Hebraica (Kittel and Kahle). The main text is allegedly an exact copy of the Leningrad Codex, but the margin notes and critical apparatus have been edited to make them easier to follow. Although criticised by some for having errors, the most recent release of the BHS (1997) underwent numerous corrections and revisions. A hardcover and paperback edition are available online

new link Biblia Hebraica (Kittel) – © 1905– 1906 (HB1), 1913 (HB2), 1937 (HB3 / HBK) Württembergische Bibelanstalt; edited by Rudolf Kittel. Three editions were published. The first two editions (distributed through Sumptibus Ernesti Bredtii Lipsiae and J. C. Hinrichs) used the Mikraot Gedolot as its main text. However, although based on the outstanding Aleppo Codex, the Mikraot Gedolot published by Daniel Bomberg (1524) is known to have numerous errors and corruptions. Thus, at the recommendation of Paul Kahle, the third edition used the Leningrad Codex as its main text while Kittel's critical apparatus and notes remained unchanged. The first edition (1905– 1906) was published in two volumes (vols 1 & 2) and is available in PDF on Internet Archive; links to other two additions have yet to be found online

new link Biblia Hebraica (Lipsiae) – © 1868 Sumptibus Ernesti Bredtii Lipsiae; edited by Caroli Tauchnitii. This two volume edition (vol 1 & 2) offers both an editio critica minor Hebrew text (1834) and the text of the Latin Clemintine Vulgate (1592). Available in PDF on Internet Archive

Hebrew- English Bible – Masoretic Text (MT), JPS. © 1917 Jerusalem Publication Society. Features the MT and an English translation

Navigating the Bible II (The Torah) – MT. Online bar / bat mitzvah tutor: Study (with optional audio) translation, Torah, Haftarot, Brachot, Divrei Torah. Several other tools are also available through this awesome resource


 
Greek


new link The Editio Critica Maior (ECM) – © 1997– ca. 2030 Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. "The Institute for New Testament Textual Research in Münster … is currently working on an entirely new edition of the Greek- language New Testament, the so- called Editio Critica Maior, which will document the history of the Greek text through the first millennium on the basis of Greek manuscripts, old translations, and New Testament citations in ancient Christian literature that are of significance to the history of transmission. This edition therefore also provides information for answering further questions: How does a text change over the course of history, and why? How was a text received in the early Christian era? The original biblical text was also reconstructed once more in this connection with a newly developed method; in this process it became evident that the existing text required extensive modification. The first installment of this edition appeared in 1997. … The entire Editio Critica Maior is to be completed by 2030. This project is being supported by the Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities"

Digital Nestle- Aland Prototype – © INTF. This website offers glimpse of an endeavour to provide the forthcoming NA28 with critical apparatus online (it is currently using the NA27 with an incomplete critical apparatus). Includes an online user guide for using the prototype; for more information, read what is in this link and this link. Available from the University of Münster Institute for New Testament Textual Research

new link The Greek Bible in Byzantine Judaism (GBBJ) – © 2012 Greek Bible in Byzantine Judaism. "The aim of the Greek Bible in Byzantine Judaism project is to gather evidence for the use of Greek Bible translations by Jews in the Middle Ages, and to make these texts available to scholars as a corpus, together with the information necessary for an appreciation of their historical background, meaning and exegetical implications" (see about GBBJ). This text is a critical edition of the LXX

Septuagint – LXX. An HTML transliteration of the Greek text

archived The New Testament and the Septuagint – includes the LXX and the Greek NT Byzantine / Majority Text in PDF. Available from The University of British Columbia. A backup of the site (6 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive

Westcot & Hort Greek New Testament – Greek NT (W&H). © 1881 Westcot & Hort. Available on The Perseus Digital Library

Westcot & Hort Greek New Testament – Greek NT (W&H). © 1881 Westcot & Hort. Available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library (with accents)

The Greek New Testament – Greek NT. © Tony Fisher. Nestle- Aland 26th Edition (NA26). Unfortunately, since Tony Fisher passed away in 2000, those maintaining this website plan to close it down indefinitely sometime in the near future. However, a mirror site is now available from the website of Jonathan Kimmit

Online Greek New Testament – Greek NT. Features word parsing, Strong's Dictionary, etc.
  

Hebrew / Aramaic & Greek


Reader's Version of Greek and Hebrew Bible – © John Dyer. Designed to "present you with only what you really need to actually read the original text free from the distractions of additional features," by allowing "you to create a customized reader's version of the Hebrew or Greek Biblical text." For more information, read the article posted on his blog
     

Latin


Jerome's Latin Vulgate (405 C.E.) – Latin Vulgate. Roman Catholic. Contains Apocryphal writings and additions

link wanted updated Sixtine Vulgate (1590 C.E.) – Latin Vulgate. Roman Catholic. For information about this translation, see this link. Contains Apocryphal writings and additions

fixed link updated Clementine Vulgate (1592 C.E.) – Latin Vulgate. Roman Catholic. Contains Apocryphal writings and additions. The OT of this edition was used for the Douay (English) translation. Also available in PDF

Nova Vulgata: Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio – New Latin Vulgate. Roman Catholic. Contains Apocryphal writings and additions. Available from The Vatican archive



Syriac


new link Peshitta – © Paul D. Younan. Sidebar includes links to the introduction, articles, tools (lexicon, Peshitta NT & Psalms (PDF), etc.), Trilinear Targums (Hebrew- English), Interlinear NT (Aramaic- English), forum, music, etc.

new link Syriac Bible – © 1823 (no longer in copyright). A scanned copy of the Syriac Bible. Available on Internet Archive. More information about the Syriac Bible is available here, on Syriac Orthodox Resources


Coptic


link wanted
  

Lexicons, Grammar & Learning Guides
(Hebrew / Aramaic, Greek)

A "Lexicon" is generally understood to be an alphabetical dictionary of Hebrew / Aramaic or Classical / Koine Greek words, each with a set of definitions (broad) or an explanation of its possible meanings in relation to its appearance or use (specific). Some lexicons include a list of synonyms and antonymns. Although these are potentially useful tools, their usefulness is limited without a basic understanding of Hebrew / Aramaic and Classical / Koine Greek grammars. To help address this problem, "Grammar & Learning Guides" are also included in this section.

In Biblical Hebrew, there are three noticable stages of alphabet and grammar formation between the earliest and latest writings; for example, the book of Daniel alternates between latter Hebrew and Aramaic languages. Later (ca. 800 C.E.), vowels were added to Biblical Hebrew in an attempt to preserve proper pronounciation; modern Hebrew generally lacks vowels.
   Similarly, there are some differences between Classical (mainly Attic / Ionic) Greek and Koine Greek. Primary differences between Classical and Koine Greek include vocabulary, pronounciation, grammar and spelling of certain words. By the time Attic (i.e., Byzantine) Greek became normative (ca. 330 C.E.), some of these variations were cultural— thus the transition of a text from place to place could often be determined by the way they spelled or arranged certain words, etc. These variations began to appear when the original New Testament writings were copied, translated and spread across the Roman Empire (and beyond), and varied according to language and spellings of the copyist. As copies were further copied, translated and spread, variations increased, leaving a 'footprint' which modern scholars use to trace back a manuscript's influences and history.
   During the reign of Roman Emperor Diocletian (284– 305 C.E.), his co- regent and son- in- law Galerius persuaded Diocletian to issue three edicts to persecute and purge Christianity from the Roman Empire (303 C.E.); a fourth edict was issued by co- regent Maximian (304 C.E.). All Christian Scriptures and churches were to be burned, all Christians were to be deprived of public offices and civil rights, and any Christian who refused to sacrifice to Roman deities were publically tortured, mutilated, and either executed or forced to work in the prison mines (which often ended in death). In 308 C.E., a fifth edict was issued that forced Christians to either starve to death or consume food and drink that were sacrificed to Roman deities or sprinkled with wine sacrificed to Roman deities. Most of the earliest New Testament writings are believed to have been destroyed during this time. In 310 C.E., Maximian committed suicide. A year later, after eight years of persecution, Galerius relented and issued an edict of toleration toward Christians in his lands (311 C.E.). Although Christians continued to be persecuted under Maximin and Maxentius in the east, things changed when Constantine (the Roman Emperor, recognised only in the west) defeated Maxentius in battle (312 C.E.) and issued his own edict of toleration (313 C.E.). Maximin consented to the edict, but poisoned himself soon afterward when Constantine's brother- in- law and co- regent, Lucinius, defeated Maximin in battle. In 323 C.E., Lucinius briefly renewed persecution against Christianity, but was defeated by Constantine who then restored peace and became the sole ruler of the Roman Empire.
   Cultural influences (driven mainly by purists of Attic Greek, who strongly opposed Koine Greek) brought in Atticism (i.e., Byzantine Greek, ca. 330 C.E.). The majority of Greek New Testament writings that have been found in modern times are from this time period and beyond (a.k.a., the "Majority Text"), and reflect the language, spelling, grammar, etc. of Attic Greek. These were then copied, translated and spread throughout the Roman Empire and beyond, primarily in the East. (In ca. 383– 405, Jerome was commissioned by the archbishop of Rome to translate both the Old and New Testiments into Latin; this translation was likewise copied, translated and spread throughout the Roman Empire and beyond, primarily in the West. Jerome's translation is commonly known as the Latin Vulgate, and includes the Apocrypha from the Greek translation of the Old Testament.) Attic Greek remained the standard language in Constantinople and surrounding areas until it was conquored by the devout Islamic militany force of the invading Ottoman Turks, who suppressed the Attic Greek language in 1453 C.E. and renamed the city Istanbul. (Resistence kept Crete's local Greek dialect in common use until 1669 C.E.) When Greece became free in 1830 C.E., Crete's written dialect contributed to modern Greek's 'demotic' liturature, while Athens' and the Peloponnese's spoken dialect became the source of modern Greek's spoken dialect. More recently, a purified 'katharevusa' form of Greek was devised as an all- encompassing spoken and written medium, but numerous problems persist which education and media are attempting to resolve.
 
  
Lexicons


Strongs Concordance with Hebrew & Greek Lexicon – available from Blue Letter Bible

renamed updated Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon – with Strong's Numbers. "The Old Testament Hebrew lexicon is Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius Lexicon; this is keyed to the 'Theological Word Book of the Old Testament.' Also included are pronunciations of each word with alternate pronunciations if available. Bible Study Tools offers two Bible versions, King James and New American Standard, for studying within the Old Testament lexicons." Available on BibleStudyTools.com

renamed updated New Testament Greek Lexicon – with Strong's Numbers. "The New Testament Greek lexicon based on Thayer's and Smith's Bible Dictionary plus others; this is keyed to the large Kittel and the 'Theological Dictionary of the New Testament.' Also included are pronunciations of each word with alternate pronunciations if available. Bible Study Tools offers two Bible versions, King James and New American Standard, for studying within the New Testament lexicons." Available on BibleStudyTools.com

renamed Perseus General Search Tools – this resource is among the best and most powerful search engines available online: Access several lexicons, concordances, etc. for classical Greek, NT (Koine) Greek, as well as other writings and resources! This particular search engine includes searches in English, Greek, Latin, Old English, German and Old Norse. Available from The Perseus Digital Library

Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon (CAL) – © Hebrew Union College (Jewish Institute of Religion). "A new dictionary of the Aramaic language, to be called The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon, is currently in preparation by an international team of scholars, with headquarters at the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati. This major scholarly reference work will cover all dialects and periods of ancient Aramaic, one of the principal languages of antiquity, with a literature of central importance for history and civilization, and especially for the Jewish and Christian religions. … The new lexicon is to be comprehensive in the following ways: 1) it will take in all of ancient Aramaic, not just selected portions; 2) it will be based on a new and thorough compilation of all Aramaic literature, not just on existing dictionaries; 3) it will take account of all modern scholarly discussion of the Aramaic language. … The current web site is a tool for scholarly research. It presumes that users are already familiar with the materials they are researching, and should not be misinterpreted as being a complete lexicon at this stage. Our intent is to put the actual lexicon online when at least 50% of all glosses are justified by extensive textual citations. When that occurs depends on funding levels"

Navigating the Bible II (The Torah) – MT. Online bar / bat mitzvah tutor: Study (with optional audio) translation, Torah, Haftarot, Brachot, Divrei Torah. Several other tools are also available through this awesome resource



Grammar Guides


Greek Grammar – a compilation primarily of Daniel B. Wallace's Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics and William B. Mounce's A Graded Reader of Biblical Greek

Numerous Informative, Scholarly, and Academic Papers – © Daniel B. Wallace. "Daniel B. Wallace has taught Greek and New Testament courses on a graduate school level since 1979. He has a Ph.D. from Dallas Theological Seminary, and is currently professor of New Testament Studies at his alma mater. His Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (Zondervan, 1996) has become a standard textbook in colleges and seminaries. He is the senior New Testament editor of the NET Bible." Available from Bible.org

fixed link updated Greek Grammar on the Web – © 1999– 2010 Marc Huys. Roman Catholic. "The electronic gateway to the study of Ancient Greek." Marc Huys died in September 2011 and the original website was removed; however, it is being rebuilt, revised and updated by "Toon Van Hal" (under construction)

Let's Review Greek! – © Cornell College. Contains links to the basic resources (alphabet and pronounciation), Greek grammars (easy, intermediate and advanced), online exercises, and additional resources (including easy and intermediate readings)

A Greek Grammar for Colleges – © Herbert Weir Smyth. Available from The Perseus Digital Library

 
Learning Guides


archived TextKit – Greek and Latin learning tools. "Textkit is the Internet's largest provider of free and fully downloadable Greek and Latin grammars and readers. With currently 146 free books to choose from, Greek and Latin learners have downloaded 642,546 grammars, readers and classical e-books." A backup of the site (24 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive

Ancient Greek Tutorials – "of the Department of Classics of the University of California, Berkeley, a project of Professor Donald Mastronarde and the Berkeley Language Center"

Greek Course (Athenaze): Study Aids – examines Athenian Greek, as taught in the first edition of Athenaze: An Introduction to Ancient Greek by Maurice Balme and Gilbert Lawall (Oxford University Press). A freeware Greek font (SP lonic) is required to view the Greek text on this site

Athenaze Supplimentary Exercises – © James F. Johnson. A helpful suppliment for use with Athenaze: An Introduction to Ancient Greek Book I and Athenaze: An Introduction to Ancient Greek Book II. Only accessible using Microsoft Explorer (does not allow Mozilla- based browsers to access the exercises)

NT Greek.Net – a basic introduction to NT (Koine) Greek; includes three courses on this subject. A shareware Greek font (SGreek) also available for download (required to view Greek text on this site)

fixed link QuickMem Hebrew and Greek – both of these programs are available on this webpage and simulate vocabulary flash cards. QuickMem Hebrew contains words that appear fifty (50) times or more, and is based mainly on the "lists and translations from Andrew Wergeland at the Norwegian Lutheran School of Theology"; QuickMem Greek contains words that appear ten (10) times or more, and is based mainly on "lists from Bruce M. Metzger's Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek"

 
Interlinears & Extras


The Apostolic Bible Polyglot – © The Apostolic Press. Features the Septuagint (LXX) and Greek NT with Greek- English interlinear (a PDF for each book), concordances (PDF), English- Greek Index (PDF), Analytical Lexicon (PDF), Grammar of the Analytical Lexicon (PDF), and more

fixed link updated The Septuagint in the New Testament – © R. Grant Jones. "A summary overview of New Testament quotations from the Old Testament." See also the Notes on the Septuagint. Available on R. Grant Jones' Homepage
    

Textual Criticism & Exegetical Resources

This section was originally intended as an introduction to textual criticism and exegetical resources. However, due to certain developments, it is no longer possible to provide links to resources that merely introduce this material. Thus, for the sake of clarity, it seemed necessary to provide links to more scholarly resources as well. Due to their complexity, textual criticism and exegesis are generally introduced to university students at the undergraduate (bachelor) level, while more indepth studies are reserved for students at the graduate (masters and doctorate) level of biblical, religious or divinity studies.
   Textual criticism (aka "lower criticism") is the art and science of reconstructing original texts (aka "autographs") from later copies, which carry different "family" characteristics that developed over time due to a variety of factors (incidental and intentional). Due to their significance and importance, autographs of NT writings were copied, translated and dispersed numerous times among Christians relatively soon after arriving at their original destination. When these copies (of the autographs) reached their various destinations (and perhaps even along the way), they too would be copied, translated and dispersed numerous times. This process then repeated itself with copies of copies, continuing until the present day. If incidental copyist errors or intentional copyist corruptions were made during copying process, they were not universal but unique and could often be used to trace its descendants (much like DNA is used to trace family relations, or Darwin's theory of evolution is presented
using the tree diagram with multiple branches ultimately originating from a common source). The result is a family tree with multiple branches that sometimes intertwine, each carrying more and more characteristics that (like DNA) can be used to identify, organise and group copies according to common family traits. Most copyist errors or corruptions (especially significant ones) can be detected and corrected by comparing texts (with earlier texts and texts from other branches), thus allowing scholars to reconstruct texts that better reflect the autographs. The accuracy of any given family of copies can be determined by examining its history and by paleography (scribes had different skill levels, from novice to professional, which reflects in how they copied texts; the so- called "Alexandrian" family of texts are generally recognised as being more accurate and reliable). The date of any given manuscript can be determined (to varying degrees) by a variety of methods, including carbon dating (which destroys the sample in the process), or by the copyist adding the copy date (very rare), or by paleography.
   Paleography is a science that takes into consideration things like the writing style of the copyist, the inks and colours that they used, the materials that were written on (papyrus, parchment, palimpsests, paper, wax tablets, etc.) and how they were formatted (scroll, codex, rotuli, folded books, tabulae, et al.; size, layout, binding, et al.). Each of these were introduced, used, changed, and (in many cases) discontinued at specific times in history, and help specialtists in this field to identify roughly when and where these texts were copied while also helping them to distinguish authentic copies from later forgeries.
   Exegesis is the art of interpretation or critical interpretation, whereby the intended meaning of the author (of any given writing) is sought. Thus, the immediate and broader contexts must be considered. Who is being addressed (who is the original audience)? Where and when is it being said (historical, geographical, cultural, et al. context, in context of who is being addressed)? What is being said (what is the message, in context of the aforesaid considerations and present events)? Why is it being said (what is the goal or purpose of the message, in context of the aforesaid considerations)? Other questions might be asked, but these are some basic ones that help determine the immediate context. To determine the broader context, a deeper understanding of the subject (e.g., people, history, events, rituals, etc.) is required. In regards to the OT & NT, this broader context includes the bigger picture of everything that happened leading up to this passage and was to happen afterward (perhaps as a consequence), including what God revealed, proclaimed, prophecied, etc. before and what came to pass afterwards. Of significant importance is the establishment of the original covenant that God cut with Abraham (wherein God promised Abraham would be the father of many nations, and that land, et al. would be given to descendents of Sarah's son Isaac, that He would be their God, they would be His people, etc.), as well as the establishment of the old covenant (which included the promised land, establishment of God as their God and them as His people, and the Law of Moses along with its blessings and curses). These covenants were only valid among males and families of males who were circumcised in the flesh, including male slaves; everyone else was cut off from the covenant (including its blessings and curses) and could not remain with those who were circumcised into this covenant. This covenant was re-affirmed and re-established through Joshua before Israel entered the land promised to them, and remains applicable even to this day. However, in midst of Israel's inability to hold their end of the covenant, God foretold and prophesied that He would establish a new covenant to replace the old one, which would be established at the time of the promised Messiah. Thus, all Israel before and during the ministry of Jesus were looking forward to the Messiah. During Jesus' ministry (as recorded in the four Gospels), false messiahs were common; but unlike these false messiahs, Jesus fulfilled what the OT revealed about the Messiah, including the establishment of the new covenant, His sacrificial death (for the true forgiveness of sins) and His resurrection. These events provide the background context for the book of Acts, including the ascension of Jesus and the gift of the Holy Spirit to all baptised believers (given first to the circumcised Jewish believers, then to uncircumcised non- Jewish believers to demonstrate that a) God had accepted them apart from the old covenant requirements, and b) they could be baptised into the faith). These events also provide the broader context for the Epistles and other writings of the NT, as the early church unfolded (along with various questions, doubts, struggles and significant problems that arose among believers within different congregations throughout the Roman Empire). Recognising that Christ's return was further in the future than anticipated, that the persecution (imprisonment, torture and execution) of believers was increasing, and that many Apostles and witnesses were among those being martyred, it became necessary to preserve the Gospel in written form rather than merely in oral form. Thus, according to earliest accounts, the Apostle Matthew wrote the Gospel in Hebrew (which was later translated into Greek); the Apostle Peter proclaimed the Gospel to Mark, who then wrote it in Greek; Luke, an early non- Jewish convert to Christianity, researched many primary sources and interviewed numerous witnesses of Jesus' life, ministry and coinciding events before writing the Gospel in Greek; the Apostle John, likely aware of the other Gospels and likely responding to numerous errors and heresies threatening the early Church, wrote the Gospel to highlight certain detailed events, teachings and prayers of Jesus which both compliment and supplement the other Gospels. Thus, the Gospel of Jesus was recorded and preserved. When new and foreign so- called gospels arose, there was already in existence both authentic oral and written Gospel to expose their errors. These are the sources that the early Church Fathers used to oppose and condemn those latter writings and their teachers as heretical.

   Most of the links (below) are to scholarly resources, which are geared more for academics and scholars. Other links are to non- scholarly resources, which are geared more for the general public and attempts to to simplify things so that the general public can grasp it (with different levels of success). A major problem with taking scholarly resources and trying to make them accessible to the general public is that certain skills, details and background information (learned and developed over many years of university education, research and studies) are usually overlooked, ignored, and can be misrepresented or misunderstood. As a result, the public (in general) lack the skills and information needed to really understand and evaluate what is being presented to them. Consequently, the general public may become misled by incomplete and fragmented information (an incomplete picture of what is known by scholars), and end up with beliefs and conclusions that disagree with what scholars know to be true (the full picture). While this is problematic, it gets worse when some scholars (who know better) distort and misrepresent what is known to them in order to mislead people. As a result, other scholars have written responses and books intended to undo the damage, so that the general public might become better equipped to grasp and evaluate things. (Granted, if someone wants to learn more about textual criticism and exegesis, I highly recommend that they learn about these things in a university that teaches all sides fairly.)


Textual Criticism


The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) – "The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM), under the umbrella of The Center for the Research of Early Christian Documents (CRECD), exists for the following purposes: 1) To make digital photographs of extant Greek New Testament manuscripts so that such images can be preserved, duplicated without deterioration, and accessed by scholars doing textual research. 2) To utilize developing technologies (OCR, MSI, etc.) to read these manuscripts and create exhaustive collations. 3) To analyze individual scribal habits in order to better predict scribal tendencies in any given textual problem. 4) To publish on various facets of New Testament textual criticism. 5) To develop electronic tools for the examination and analysis of New Testament manuscripts. 6) To cooperate with other institutes in the great and noble task of determining the wording of the autographa of the New Testament." For an updated list of recently discovered manuscripts (PDF), see this link from INTF


A Site Inspired by the Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism – ©1997– 2008 Robert Waltz, conceived by Rich Elliot. An informative (but not peer reviewed) website provided by an unrecognised textual critic who "attempts to cover all aspects of New Testament Textual Criticism in an orderly and fair fashion"


Book Resources
(select authors)


updated The Text of the New Testament : An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism – © Kurt and Barbara Aland (Eerdmans, 1989; paperback, 1995). 2nd edition. "A definitive introduction to New Testament textual criticism, this book includes a comparison of the major editions of the New Testament, detailed description and analysis of the manuscripts of the Greek New Testament, and discussion on the value of the early versions. This second edition contains two new supplementary essays as well as revised plates, tables, and charts"

The Text of the New Testament : Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration – © Bruce M. Metzger (Oxford Press, 1992). 3rd edition. "For more than twenty- five years the standard account of the compilation and transmission of the New Testament, this text offers a comprehensive survey of ancient and newly- discovered manuscripts, and considers both the science and art of textual criticism as applied to the interpretation of manuscripts. Containing references to more than 150 additional books and articles dealing with Greek manuscripts, early versions, and critical studies of witnesses to the text of the New Testament, it covers a variety of textual problems and provides an objective account of the several schools of textual methodology. The third edition describes advances in textual criticism of the New Testament since 1964. The Text of the New Testament, 3/e remains a definitive resource for courses in biblical studies and the history of Christianity." NOTE: Although the statistics are outdated and some information is placed in appendices, this is an excellent resource and the last edition that does not have additions and modifications by Bart D. Ehrman

Dethroning Jesus : Exposing Popular Culture's Quest to Unseat the Biblical Jesus – © Darrell L. Bock and Daniel B. Wallace (Thomas Nelson, 2007). This book addresses several misleading claims, arguments and challenges by scholars like Bart D. Ehrman (e.g., The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, Lost Christianities and Misquoting Jesus), Elaine Pagels and James Tabor

modified Reinventing Jesus : How Contemporary Skeptics Miss the Real Jesus and Mislead Popular Culture – © J. Ed Komoszewski, M. James Sawyer and Daniel B. Wallace (Kregel, 2008). An excellent resource. Note: On page 279, footnote #2 adds a link to an updated catalog of recently discovered manuscripts (post- NA27). This link, however, does not work because the name of this PDF changes with every update. The most recent PDF catalog can be found on this link from INTF

Revisiting the Corruption of the New Testament : Manuscripts, Patristic, and Apocryphal Evidence – © Daniel B. Wallace (Kregel Academic, 2011). "In recent years popular culture has experienced a revival of interest in the early church and the beginning of the canonizing of Scripture. Extremely critical of the nature of the New Testament canon, however, many writers have suggested that the New Testament authors 'interrupted' Jesus and misquoted His message. This scholarly book presents a strong case for the historicity and accuracy of the Bible, refuting the accusation that the Bible is unreliable. From Revisiting the Corruption of the New Testament, students of New Testament and textual criticism will learn how the New Testament was written, compiled, and transmitted. This book is a detailed rebuttal to confident remarks about the inaccuracies— indeed the corruption— of the New Testament. Features and Benefits: First book in the Text and Canon of the New Testament series. Edited by a world- class scholar of textual criticism, Daniel B. Wallace. Authoritative challenge to the popular books by Bart D. Ehrman"
  

modified The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture : The Effect of Early Christological Controversies on the Text of the New Testament – © Bart D. Ehrman (Oxford Press, 1993). This work reflects Ehrman's thesis that pseudepigraphal writings and variants found in some later copies of the New Testament were consciously made by orthodox scribes in response to various heresies. For the most part, this (1993 edition) is an excellent work; however, some of his claims and conclusions are extreme and do not adequately reflect the evidence. Ehrman presumes that his readers are fairly well acquainted and familiar with textual criticism; thus, this book is not intended for the general public. A recent updated and expanded edition (2011) is now available that includes almost 100 more pages of updates

new link The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research : Essays on the Status Questionis – © William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company (ed. Bart D. Ehrman and Michael W. Holmes; 1995). "The present volume comprises a series of essays on the discrete aspects of New Testament textual criticism written by internationally recognized scholars in the field, all of them providing an authoritative statement of the status questionis. Although each essay has been structured in view of the requirements of its own subject matter …, the foci are developments that have transpired over the past fifty years, leading to to assessments of 'where we are now' as a result (as of mid- 1993). By no means can these essays be seen as a replacement of the standard introductions; indeed, knowledge of these basic works (but little more) is presupposed throughout the volume. But here for the first time is a collection of informed discussions of the current state of knowledge with respect to a wide range of important topics: Greek manuscripts (with separate articles on the papyri, the majuscules, the minuscules, and the lectionaries), the early versions (Diatessaron, Syriac, Latin, Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, and Georgian), patristic citations (Greek, Latin, and Syriac), studies of cribal habits, approaches to manuscript classification, the use of computers for textual criticism, recent apparatuses and criticial editions, methods for evaluating variant readings (the Majority text theory, thoroughgoing eclecticism, and reasoned eclecticism), and the use of textual data for early Christian social history. Each discussion includes an up- to- date bibliography of works relevant to the (sub-) field" (The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research, x–xi)

new link Encountering the Manuscripts : An Introduction to New Testament Paleography & Textual Criticism – © Philip W. Comfort (Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2005). This book "offers an expert's introduction to New Testament paleography (the study of ancient writings and inscriptions) and textual criticism, giving readers a window into the transmission of the Bible in the earliest centuries of the church. Based on exhaustive experience and study, author Philip Comfort: Explores scribal participation in the production of the earliest New Testament writings. Gives an annotated list of all the significant Greek manuscripts and early versions. Assigns dates for the earliest New Testament manuscripts. Examines the 'nomina sacra' (sacred names) in the early New Testament manuscripts. Presents the history of textual variation in the early centuries of the church. Details various methods of recovering the original wording of the Greek New Testament. Provides concrete examples for the practice of textual criticism" (Encountering the Manuscripts, back cover)

The Text of the New Testament : Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration – © Bruce M. Metzger and Bart D. Ehrman (Oxford Press, 2005). 4th edition. "This thoroughly revised edition of Bruce M. Metzger's classic work is the most up- to- date manual available for the textual criticism of the New Testament. The Text of the New Testament, Fourth Edition, has been invigorated by the addition of Bart D. Ehrman— author of numerous best- selling books on the New Testament— as a coauthor. This revision brings the discussion of such important matters as the early Greek manuscripts and methods of textual criticism up to date, integrating recent research findings and approaches into the body of the text (as opposed to previous revisions, which compiled new material and notes into appendices). The authors also examine new areas of interest, including the use of computers in the collection and evaluation of manuscript evidence and the effects that social and ideological influences had upon the work of scribes. The standard text for courses in biblical studies and the history of Christianity since its first publication in 1964, The Text of the New Testament is poised to become a definitive resource for a whole new generation of students." This edition updates statistical data and reorganises information found in the third edition in a very useful and beneficial way, but also features numerous additions and modifications by Bart D. Ehrman which may prove problematic

new link An Introduction to the New Testament Manuscripts and their Texts – © D. C. Parker (Cambridge University Press, 2008). "This is the first major English- language introduction to the earliest manuscripts of the New Testament to appear for over forty years. An essential handbook for scholars and students, it provides a thorough grounding in the study and editing of the New Testament text combined with an emphasis on the dramatic current developments in the field. Covering ancient sources in Greek, Syriac, Latin and Coptic, it describes the manuscripts and other ancient textual evidence, and the tools needed to study them; deals with with textual criticism and textual editing, describing modern approaches and techniques, with guidance on the use of editions; introduces the witness and textual study of each of the main sections of the New Testament, discussing typical variants and their significance. A companion website with full- color images provides generous amounts of illustrative material, bringing the subject alive for the reader" (An Introduction to the New Testament Manuscripts and their Texts, back cover)

new link New Testament Text and Translation Commentary : Commentary on the Variant Readings of the Ancient New Testament Manuscripts and How They Relate to the Major English Translations – © Philip W. Comfort (Tyndale, 2008). "Scholars today have access to thousands of ancient manuscripts and manuscript fragments for the Greek New Testament, allowing for an inprecedented level of accuracy in discovering the original wording. Nevertheless, there exist a number of textual variants in the manuscripts, and scholars and Bible translation committees do not always agree on which wording is original. English Bible versions note many such instances in the page margins, but explanations are brief if present at all. The New Testament and Translation Commentary offers a convenient way to see how the standard English translations differ when there is a significant textual variant in the inderlying Greek manuscripts. For each passage, the textual data is presented in a clear, easy- to- read way. It is easy to see at a glance which English versions follow which Greek variant. In addition, New Testament scholar Philip W. Comfort gives helpful commentary on what is going on in the Greek text and what might have lef the translators to choose one reading over another. … In addition to passage- by- passage commentary, Comfort provides and introduction t the art of textual criticism, its importance for studying the New Testament, and the challenges Bible scholars and translators face" (New Testament Text and Translation Commentary, back cover)

The Reliability of the New Testament : Bart Ehrman and Daniel B. Wallace in Dialogue – © Robert B. Stewart, editor (Fortress Press, 2011). "This volume highlights points of agreement and disagreement between two leading scholars on the subject of the textual reliability of the New Testament: Bart Ehrman, James A. Gray Distinguished Professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and author of the best- selling book Misquoting Jesus : The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why, and Daniel Wallace, Professor of New Testament Studies at Dallas Theological Seminary and Executive Director of the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. This conversation between Ehrman and Wallace allows the reader to see in print how each presents his position in light of the other's. Contributions follow from an interdisciplinary team featuring specialists in biblical studies, philosophy, and theology. The textual reliability of the New Testament is logically prior to its interpretation and thus important for the Christian religion. This book provides interested readers a fair and balanced case for both sides and allows them to decide for themselves: What does it mean for a text to be textually reliable? How reliable is the New Testament? How reliable is reliable enough?"
     
Misquoting Jesus : The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why – © Bart D. Ehrman (HarperOne, 2007). This work is dedicated to his mentor, Bruce M. Metzger, and seems to be Ehrman's attempt to take select information from Metzger's The Text of the New Testament and The Canon of the New Testament and his own work on The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, then simplify them in a way that is accessible to the general public. On the positive side, he succeeds in simplifying this select information and making it accessible. On the negative side, Ehrman is very selective in what information he makes known (he does not always give readers a complete or accurate picture of what is known to scholars) and he often misrepresents it (either with information he carefully leaves out, or with misleading comments that he adds). Ehrman often abandons what he knows as a scholar, and misleads readers with unrealistic demands (e.g., the demand for original autographs) and conclusions that reflect his own personal doubts. He thus gives readers the false impression that the entire New Testament is utterly lost, corrupt, unreliable and beyond restoration— which Ehrman himself knows is untrue. For example, if his claims were true, then he could not 1) claim that certain passages are corrupt while others are not, since his claim is based on 2) a reconstruction of what he believes was written in the original autographs (which he denies is possible)

Jesus, Interrupted : Revealing the Hidden Contradictions in the Bible (and Why We Don't Know About Them) – © Bart D. Ehrman (HarperOne, 2009). "Ehrman skillfully demonstrates that the New Testament is riddled with contradictory views about who Jesus was and the significance of his life. Ehrman reveals that many of the books were written in the names of the apostles by Christians living decades later, and that central Christian doctrines were the inventions of still later theologians. Although this has been the standard and widespread view of scholars for two centuries, most people have never learned of it." In this book, Ehrman primarily argues for the higher critical (i.e., historical critical) method, and (using this method) comments on several textual variants and alleged contradictions. As with Misquoting Jesus (above), there are several strengths to this book but also many problems: Ehrman a) often overlooks significant details when addressing alleged contradictions (which demonstrate that they are not contradictory); b) does not give readers a complete or accurate picture of what is known to scholars (but is very selective in what he tells readers); c) often misrepresents information (by carefully leaving out significant information, and by adding misleading comments)
  


Exegetical Resources


Collections


Ancient Hebrew Research Center – © Ancient Hebrew Research Center. "Teaching the Ancient Biblical Hebrew Language of the Bible Through the Study of the Ancient Hebrew Alphabet, Culture and Thought"

Hebrew Old Testament – a very informative list (with links) to numerous online resources for Hebrew texts, audio recordings of Hebrew texts, textual criticism, the Hebrew language, introduction (exegesis) and surveys, miscellaneous, bibliographies, discussions, web directories, etc. Available from Web Directory of Biblical Studies

Greek New Testament – a very informative list (with links) to numerous online resources for Greek texts, textual criticism, arguments in favour of the Majority Text, web directories for textual criticism, the Greek language, learning Greek, the language of the New Testament, etc. Available from Web Directory of Biblical Studies

 
Articles of Interest


Old Testament Apocrypha Controversy – © Don Closson. Available from Probe Ministries


Book Resources
(select authors)


new link A Handbook of New Testament Exegesis – © Craig L. Blomberg with Jennifer Foutz Markley (Baker Academic, 2010). Includes chapters on Textual Criticism, Translation and Translations, Historical- Cultural Context, Literary Context, Word Studies, Grammar, Interpretive Problems, Outlining, Theology, Application, Summary, and a Checklist for Doing Biblical Exegesis (Appendix).

  
    


Archæology



General Information
   

This area is designed to provide a general overview of archæology, its history, its dating methods (including pros and cons), and links to some general archæological resources.
   If you are interested in archæological resources that are relevant to the Biblical narrative, then please check out some of the resources below or in the next two sections (Old Testament and Intertestamental or New Testament and Early Church).


What is Archæology?
added


new link Archaeology for Kids – © Lin and Don Donn. An excellent resource that introduces children to the world of archaeology. Includes links to free games and activities, powerpoint presentations, clipart and templates by various contributors, including clipart by Phillip Martin. Available from the Mr. Donn collection

new link Ask Dr. Dig : Frequently Asked Questions – © Cobblestone Publishing. Check out some additional Ask Dr. Dig topics. Available on dig : the archaeology magazine for kids

new link What is Archaeology? What do archaeologists really do? – © Council for British Archaeology

new link What is Archaeology? – © Andrea Vianello

new link What is Archaeology? – © University of Alabama

new link What is Archaeology? – © MATRIX. This particular article discusses anthropological archaeology. Available on Making Archaeology Teaching Relevant in the XXI Century (M.A.T.R.I.X)


History of Archæology
added


new link How Archaeology Works : The History of Archaeology – © HowStuffWorks, Inc.; by Sarah Dowdey

new link History of Archaeology – © MATRIX. Available on Making Archaeology Teaching Relevant in the XXI Century (M.A.T.R.I.X)

new link History of Archaeology – © ULC Institute of Archaeology
 

Dating Methods
and some critiques
added


link wanted(some links will be added, when time permits)
 

Archæological Websites
added

  
new link Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA) – © University of Montana. "Formed in 1967, the Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA) is the largest scholarly group concerned with the archaeology of the modern world (A.D. 1400- present). The main focus of the society is the era since the beginning of European exploration. SHA promotes scholarly research and the dissemination of knowledge concerning historical archaeology. The society is specifically concerned with the identification, excavation, interpretation, and conservation of sites and materials on land and underwater. Geographically the society emphasizes the New World, but also includes European exploration and settlement in Africa, Asia, and Oceania"

new link The Archaeology Channel – © Archaeological Legacy Institute. Includes archaeological videos, audios, news, events, and more

new link Biblical Archaeological Society (BAS) – © Biblical Archaeological Society. Includes links to daily articles, free eBooks, their magazine (Biblical Archaeological Review; scroll down for some free articles), and much more
  
new link Great Archaeology  : History of Archaeology – © Greatarchaeology. This website provides a brief overview of archaeology, and sections on archaeological discoveries, history, disciplines, region study, methods, museums and more. Although some good things can be said about this site, it also attempts to present some discredited "discoveries" (including Java Man and Peking Man) as though they were credible missing links in "human evolution." The fragments of Java Man include a skullcap, a femur (discovered 50 feet away and a year later), and three teeth, which were found in close proximity to two human skulls (i.e. the Wadjak skulls). Although the Selenka Expedition set out to prove the credibility of Java Man, they failed. Evidence suggests that the human femur is unrelated to the scullcap and teeth, which may have belonged to a gibbon whose brains became a meal for humans (since monkey brains remain a delicacy in that area). The fragments of Peking Man originally consisted of a single tooth (1927), which was later connected with the discovery of fourteen skulls (broken at their base) and a collection of tools and teeth that were discovered before the outbreak of world war two. Although the skulls went missing before the end of the second world war, photos and plaster casts of the missing skulls remained. Based on this evidence, the skulls were likely broken at the base by the same tools that were found with them, and the skulls likely belonged to monkeys whose brains became a meal for humans (who used the tools that were found). As for Turkana Boy, an article by Daniel Anderson is worth reading and considering

 

Old Testament & Intertestimental
   

This is an example of "Where should I put this section?" Originally it was under Biblical Resources, but now that I have an Archæology section, it seems more reasonable to stick it here.
   This section features mostly papyri and other manuscript evidences for the Old Testament and Intertestimental writings, but I also intend to add links to archæological sites.
   If you are interested in general information on archæology, its history, dating methods, etc., then please check out the general information section (above).


Dead Sea Scrolls


The Orion Center for the Study of Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature – "established in 1995 as part of the Institute for Jewish Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem" providing "many resources for the study of the Scrolls, as well as information about the Center's activities and programs"

fixed link updated Dead Sea Scrolls – features a translation or student paraphrase of several scrolls and fragments. Available on Jewish and Christian Literature

fixed link updated The Digital Dead Sea Scrolls – © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Features photos and translation for numerous scrolls, including the Great Isaiah Scroll, War Scroll, Temple Scroll, Commentary on the Habakkuk Scroll and Community Rule Scroll. See also their information video

Scrolls from the Dead Sea : The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship – available from Library of Congress Exhibitions

The Dead Sea Scrolls – features a timetable of discovery & debate, as well as several useful links

Educational Site: Dead Sea Scrolls – available from West Semitic Research Project

archived Dead Sea Scrolls & Qumran – features several useful academic links. A backup of the site (8 Oct 2010) is available on Internet Archive

Codex: Resources for Biblical, Theological, and Religious Studies – © Tyler F. Williams (Kings College; Edmonton, AB). Previously known as [email protected]. The previous website's description is absent, but still applies to the new one: "This site contains various resources for Biblical Studies, Old Testament Hebrew, religion & popular culture, theology, film, and more … including Old Testament, classical Hebrew, Dead Sea Scrolls, Septuagint, biblical studies software, the Bible & film, religion & popular culture, biblical interpretation and hermeneutics, among other things related to the academic study of the Bible." A list containing critical editions of the Dead Sea Scrolls is also available

Notes on the Septuagint – © 2000 R. Grant Jones. Available from R. Grant Jones' Home Page


Archæological Sites
(includes artifacts and discoveries)


link wanted
  

New Testament & Early Church
   

This section was also originally part of the Biblical Resources section, but has been moved here. In general, this section features links to papyri and manuscript evidences from the New Testament and various Early Church documents, but I also intend to add links to various archaeological sites.
   If you are interested in general information on archæology, its history, dating methods, etc., then please check out the general information section (above).


New Testament Papyri, Etc.


The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) – "The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM), under the umbrella of The Center for the Research of Early Christian Documents (CRECD), exists for the following purposes: 1) To make digital photographs of extant Greek New Testament manuscripts so that such images can be preserved, duplicated without deterioration, and accessed by scholars doing textual research. 2) To utilize developing technologies (OCR, MSI, etc.) to read these manuscripts and create exhaustive collations. 3) To analyze individual scribal habits in order to better predict scribal tendencies in any given textual problem. 4) To publish on various facets of New Testament textual criticism. 5) To develop electronic tools for the examination and analysis of New Testament manuscripts. 6) To cooperate with other institutes in the great and noble task of determining the wording of the autographa of the New Testament"

updated New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room – © Universität Münster Institut für neutestamentliche Textforschung (i.e. Muenster University Institute for New Testament Textual Research). This website is primarily in German (but contains both German and English articles, information, etc.) and is designed to be viewed using Firefox, Opera and Safari browsers (Google Chrome also works great, even when German text is translated into English; but Microsoft's Internet Explorer does not display properly). This website provides access to images of many significant New Testament manuscripts

updated Institute of Papyrology – © Universität Heidelberg (i.e. University of Heidelberg). This website is in German, but Google Chrome provides a relatively decent English translation of the text. This website provides access to images of many Greek, Arabic, Coptic and Demotic papyri (including Septuagint and NT)

Complete List of Greek NT Papyri – an informative chart listing most, if not all, known NT papyri, their content, and location (as of 2008); also features image links to most of these papyri and an abundance of other unseful biblical links

Catalogue of New Testament Papyri and Codices (2nd – 10th century) – © K. C. Hanson, Fortress Press. An excellent resource featuring dates, locations, etc. of papyri known to date (not many images, though)

fixed link Ancient Greek Manuscripts on the WWW – features "information about Ancient Greek Manuscripts. These sites contain either images of significant manuscripts or machine readable forms of those documents"


Archæological Sites
(includes artifacts and discoveries)

Media Resources


updated Unearthed : The Talpiot Tomb – © Legacy Pictures. This informative documentary investigates Jacobovici's claims in The Lost Tomb of Jesus film (below). This film highlights several significant facts and details that Jacobovici overlooked (or ignored), and critiques his claims and conclusions with known facts. Several experts (including some that Jacobovici interviewed and misrepresented) are interviewed to give viewers an accurate, true and clearer picture of what is known about this tomb, what was found there, the markings and inscriptions on the ossuaries, etc. PLEASE NOTE: This film is no longer available from Legacy Pictures

new link Expedition Bible : The Jesus Tomb Unmasked – © 2008 SourceFlix, Inc. Very similar to Unearthed: The Talpiot Tomb (above). You can purchase the DVD from SourceFlix, or watch the video available on Dr. William Lane Craig's YouTube videos

The Lost Tomb of Jesus – © 2007. Film maker and journalist Simcha Jacobovici (aka The Naked Archaeologist) connects the James ossuary with nine others discovered in the 1980s (which seems plausible). Believing that these ossuaries belong to a family tomb (which also seems likely), this film pretty much falls apart when he desperately tries to argue that the ossuary of "Yeshua bar Yosef" belongs to Jesus of Nazareth, "Maria" belongs to his mother Mary, "Mariameme e Mara" belongs to Mary Magdalene (who is said to be his wife), "Matia" belongs to his disciple Matthew, "Yose" belongs to his brother Jose (aka Joseph), "Yehuda bar Yeshua" belongs to Jesus' son Judah, and the remaining three unlabelled ossuaries belong to three unnamed relatives. While Jacobovici makes use of DNA testing, he only tested the ossuaries of Yeshua and the alleged "Mariameme," not the son of Jesus to see if he is related to "Mariameme." Attempts to link a symbol on the tomb entrance to an ancient Christian symbol lacks adequate proof, and other evidence suggests that it is nothing more than a masonry mark to keep ossuaries with their appropriate lids. Jacobovici's claim that "Yose" is shorthand for "Joseph" is valid; but his attempt to twist and turn the alleged name "Mariameme e Mara" into Mary Magdalene does not work. (An expert in the field, featured in the film Unearthed: The Talpiot Tomb, points out that the alleged name "Mariameme e Mara" is actually being misread and contains two names: "Maria kai Mara," thus this ossuary contained the bones of at least two people (which is also a common practice). Jacobovici's attempt to make "Matia" into Matthew is also problematic, since Matthew has no reason to be there (if he is claimed to be Jesus' disciple). While Judah is unquestionably the son of the man named Jesus buried in this tomb, this does not imply that this particular Jesus is the Jesus of the New Testament. Since DNA testing was NOT done on any of the other ossuaries, there is no evidence to prove (either way) who is related to whom; even so, ossuaries were commonly emptied out (on the ground of the tomb) and reused for later descendents. (Bones for over 30 people were found on the ground near the ossuaries of this particular tomb.) Jacobovici downplays the fact that names like "Maria," "Yeshua," "Yosef," etc. are commonly found together in family tombs, but many experts disagree with him (there is significant evidence to support the experts). Jacobovici throws some other insignificant things into the mix, but they seem to be intended as a distraction so he can start calling his theories "facts." In the end, Jacobovici offers an interesting conspiracy theory but it is fatally flawed and unconvincing. Even some scholars who love conspiracy theories will point out that the tomb is unlikely that of Jesus of Nazareth (e.g., according to one Gnostic writing, Jesus had a daughter— not a son). Additional resources are available on The Discovery Channel. I highly recommend watching Unearthed: The Talpiot Tomb (above)
 
  

Other Ancient Civilizations
   

Okay, so what about other civilizations and nations that are mentioned in the Bible? Are there any archaeological finds that tell us anything about them? The answer is yes, and I will be adding links as time permits. If you come across any links or have any suggestions, please send me an email.


Egyptian


link wanted


Hittite


link wanted


Canaanite


link wanted


Mesopotamian


link wanted


Philistine


link wanted


Assyrian


link wanted


Babylonian


link wanted


Persian


link wanted


Greek


link wanted


Roman


link wanted
     

Fossils & Living Fossils
   

Have you ever heard of something called "living fossils"? In general, living fossils are living organisms (plants, animals, birds, insects, marine life, etc.) that appear in the fossil record and were thought to be extinct for millions or billions of years— only to be recently discovered alive and relatively unchanged from the fossil records. This section provides links to many living fossils from various sites.


new link Living- Fossils.com – © Harun Yahya International. Muslim. "The number of living fossils that literally silence Darwinism is in the millions. Some of these are stored in warehouses. Only a very few are on display in various museums. This site has been prepared in order to put an end to the mentality that causes these fossils, that represent a complete response to Darwinism, to be hidden away, and that prevents them from being placed before the public." An excellent resource featuring numerous photos that compare 'ancient' fossils with their living counterpart

new link Living Fossils – © Northwest Creation Network. "'Living fossils' are plants or animals that closely resemble species known from fossils. Many … were considered extinct and only known through fossil evidence, but were later discovered to still be alive. … In fact, most living fossils are almost identical to their fossilized ancestors." An informative resource containing links (both 'secular' and 'creationist') to numerous articles, photos, etc. on living fossils

new link Living Fossils – © 2008 Popular Science; by Matt Ransford. "These mysterious creatures exist today more or less unevolved from the forms they had hundreds of millions of years ago." A photo gallery with a selection of living fossils

new link Coelacanth : The Fish Out of Time – © Third Wave Media, Inc. "This is the astounding coelacanth ('see- la- kanth'), the fusion of life and time, that following a supposed extinction of 65 million years, head- lined into human consciousness with its discovery alive in 1938. Called 'Old Four Legs' and the 'Living Fossil,' the Coelacanth quickly became the continuing obsessive focus of journalists, crypto biologists, scientists, eccentric explorers, aquariums, and divers"

new link Living Fossils : Animals From Another Time – © Discovery Communications; by Talal Al- Khatib. A photo gallery with a selection of living fossils

new link Living Fossils – © Answers in Genesis. Numerous resource links that respond to the question, "Do fossilized plants and animals really look all that different from animals we see today?"

new link 15 Animals That Are Living Fossils – © Mother Nature Network; text by Bryan Nelson. "A living fossil is an organism that has retained the same form over millions of years, has few or no living relatives, and represents a sole surviving lineage from an epoch long past. Many living fossils alive today have bizarre, eccentric traits that make them seem more like aliens than anything from this world. They have often survived several mass extinctions, and many scientists consider them to be a rare glimpse at how life on Earth was long ago"
 

Interesting Finds
   

Now this section, I hope, will be interesting. While looking up some links for Creationism, I came across some weird discoveries which I thought was really interesting (especially their implications). One find includes a fossilized boot with a foot in it from the 1800s, which demonstrates that fossilization can take place over a relatively short period of time and only requires certain conditions to be in place. Some other finds include footprints (beside human footprints), cave drawings, pottery, mosaics, carvings, embroidery, etc. of what distinctly appears to be (to modern eyes) dinosaurs that scientists claim have been extinct for millions or billions of years. However, most of these depictions were made between 600– 2,500 years ago, centuries before archaeology even existed; and the footprints are limited by the durability of mud (which had hardened to stone) and are prone to the elements. I find it interesting because it suggests that at least some dinosaurs co- existed with humans before becoming extinct, and may be the source of "dragon" and similar myths found throughout Europe and Asia. Scientists have been wrong before (see fossils and living fossils, above), so why should we be surprised by, in denial of, or even opposed to the very real possibility that scientists are wrong again?


new link Stegosaurus Carving – Ta Prohm Temple, Cambodia (Google Maps). The builders of this temple (dedicated 1186 C.E.) carved images of various creatures found locally. Among these carvings is one that looks like a stegosaurus. Since paleontology (as a science) did not exist until the late 18th century C.E. and stegosauruses are fairly distinct in appearence, it is highly likely that one of these creatures was still alive during that time



link wanted
  
     


  
 
    
A note on colour schemes used here.

Some may wonder about the colour schemes that were first introduced in June 2006 and have been developing since then. In short, areas with

 blue background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively safe (orthodox) in content since they generally do not promote, advocate or defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous or heretical material (however, see disclaimer at top of this web page).

 red background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively dangerous (unorthodox) in content since they generally do promote, advocate and defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous and even heretical material. Included are resources from quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions, cults, agnosticism, atheism, philosophical religions, the occult and other (non- Christian) religions.


 purple background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively confused in content since they generally provide both safe (orthodox) and dangerous (unorthodox) material, but for whatever reason they do not make any distinction between them. (See disclaimer at top of page.) Included in this section are Bibles containing the Apocryphal (Deuterocanonical) writings.


Some may disagree with the colour schemes I have given to one or more resources, but that is to be expected. Also, for the sake of clarity, resources with blue backgrounds do not necessarily reflect my beliefs.


A quick guide to common graphics and their meaning.

new link – this is a newly added link

offlinethis link is active but its content is offline (see that website for more information)

dead linkthis link is no longer active or its content has been removed; if you find a link, please email it to me

link wanteda link could not be found with this content; if you find a link, please email it to me

fixed linkthe previous link to this content was broken (dead) but has been replaced with a link that works

updatedinformation about the content of this link has been updated

correctedinformation about the content of this link, section, or area was found to be in error and has been corrected

addedthis is a newly added section or area

modifiedinformation about this link, section or area has been modified (perhaps in an attempt to make it more clear)

renamed – the link remains the same, but the title (and perhaps the content) has been modified

archived – the original link is no longer active or its content has been removed, but has been replaced with a link to a backup copy (perhaps from a mirror site or the Internet Archive)

internal linkthis is an internal link (to something available on dialegomai)
 
 
   



Apologetics vs. Early Schisms & Heresies



Writings of the Early Church
(before 31 October 1517)

History of the Early Church


Chart of Early Church Fathers – © ReligionFacts.com. "This chart provides basic facts on the early church fathers, including the Apostolic Fathers, the Apologists, the Cappadocian Fathers, and other important early Greek and Latin fathers." Available from ReligionFacts.com

A Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D., with an Account of the Principle Sects and Heresies – © 1999 Henry Wace and William C. Piercy. An outstanding, informative, and fairly detailed resource on people (orthodox and heretical), documents, and events of the first six hundred years. Available from Christian Classics Ethereal Library

fixed link Foxe's Book of Martyrs – © John Foxe, edited by William Byron Forbush. Quaker. Available from Christian Classics Ethereal Library. See also Foxe's Book of Martyrs from the Internet Sacred Text Archive. Learn more about John Foxe from the Christian Cyclopedia or this book from the Catholic Encyclopedia

fixed link Notes on Church History – Compiled by R. Grant Jones. "A timeline of Church history. Emphasis is on the first few centuries." Available from R. Grant Jones' Home Page

 
Writings of the Early Church
some links include pseudepigraphal writings


Compiled Allusions to the NT in the Ante- Nicene Fathers – available from e-Catena

Cross Reference Table: Writings & Authorities – available from The Development of the Canon of the New Testament

The Apostolic Fathers – © Kirsopp Lake (Loeb Classical Library). Includes the Greek texts of 1 & 2 Clement, Ignatius, Polycarp, Didache, Barnabas, The Shepherd of Hermas, The Martyrdom of Polycarp, and the Epistle of Dionetus. "Based on the text of the Loeb Classical Library." Available from Christian Classics Ethereal Library

Writings of the Apostolic Fathers – Orthodox (Greek). An English translation of the writings of the Apostolic Fathers. Available from the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America

Writings of the Early Church Fathers – © Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and Philip Schaff. Ante- Nicene, Nicene, and Post- Nicene Fathers. Available from Christian Classics Ethereal Library. See also Church Fathers from Catholic First (Roman Catholic)

Early Church Fathers: Additional Texts – edited by Roger Pearse. These texts supplement the 39 volume Writings of the Early Church Fathers (above) with additional translated material

The Fathers of the Church – Roman Catholic. Available from New Advent

dead link Early Church Documents – this resource is no longer available from The Ecole Initiative

The St. Pachomius Library – contains numerous links to "uncopyrighted English translations of the Church Fathers, the acts of the Christian martyrs, the proceedings of the Councils, the lives of the early saints, etc."

 
      


Other Side of the Fence



Pseudepigraphal & Non- Canonical Writings
(before 31 October 1517)

This section provides additional resources from the intertestimental time period (written between the Old and New Testaments) and contemporaries of the early Church (mostly written between 90 C.E. and 600 C.E.). These writings are generally considered apocryphal, pseudepigraphal or heretical (e.g., Gnostic writings). Also added to this section are some significant recent developments that attempt to bring historical matters into doubt— usually by advocating relatively new beliefs or conspiracy theories in its place. These beliefs and theories generally vary because they often rely on select apocryphal, pseudepigraphal or heretical (often Gnostic) writings for support, but some rely on alleged parallels in pagan religions. Also in this section are some more recent developments that claim to have their source in these writings.
   While many of these claims are quite fascinating, it must be said that most authors of these beliefs and conspirary theories are not being completely honest with their readers. Often authors read more into the text than what is written and being conveyed by the Hebrew, Aramaic or Greek text; or they overlook key details which often clarify alleged problems that they believe exists in certain texts; or they place unrealistic expectations and demands on Biblical texts when doing textual criticism (which they do not apply to other texts); or they over- generalise similarities while ignoring significant differences between Christian teachings and pagan beliefs.



Old Testament Apocrypha – includes 1 & 2 Esdras; 1, 2, 3 & 4 Maccabees; Baruch; Bel and the Dragon; Daniel and Susanna; Additions to Esther; Judith; Letter of Jeremiah; Prayer of Azariah; the Prayer of Manasseh; Psalm 151; Sirach; Tobit; Wisdom of Solomon. Available from Wesley Center Online

Old Testament Pseudepigrapha – includes 1 & 2 Enoch; 4 Burach (a.k.a. Paraleipomena Jeremiou); Books of Adam and Eve; Life of Adam and Eve; Story of Ahikar; Apocolypse of Abraham; Apocolypse of Moses; Joseph and Aseneth; the Book of Jubilees; Letter of Aristeas; Martyrdom of Isaiah; Psalms of Solomon; Pseudo- Phoclides; Revelation of Esdras; Second Treatise of the Great Seth; Sibylline Oracles; Testament of Abraham; Testament of Job; Testament of Solomon; Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. Available from Wesley Center Online

fixed link Apocryphal New Testament Acts – includes the Acts of Andrew; Acts and Martyrdom of Andrew; Acts of Andrew and Matthew; Acts of Barnabas; Martyrdom of Bartholomew; Acts of John; Acts of John the Theologian; History of Joseph the Carpenter; Book of John Concerning the Death of Mary; Passing of Mary; Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew; Martyrdom of Matthew; Acts of Paul; Acts of Paul and Thecla; Acts of Peter; Acts of Peter and Andrew; Acts of Peter and Paul; Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles; Acts of Philip; Report of Pontius Pilate to Tiberius; Giving Up of Pontius Pilate; The Death of Pilate; Acts of Thaddaeus; Acts of Thomas; Book of Thomas the Contender; Consummation of Thomas. Available from Wesley Center Online

Apocryphal New Testament Apocalypse – includes the Apocalypse of Adam; Revelation of Esdras; First & Second Apocalypse of James; Revelation of John the Theologian; Revelation of Moses; Apocalypse of Paul; Revelation of Paul; Apocalypse of Peter; Vision of Paul; Revelation of Peter; Apocalypse of Peter. Available from Wesley Center Online

Apocryphal New Testament Gospels – includes the Infancy Gospel of Thomas; Gospel of James; Gospel of the Nativity of Mary; Gospel of Mary [Magdalene]; Gospel of Pseudo- Matthew; Gospel of Nicodemus (a.k.a., Acts of Pilate); Gospel of Bartholomew; Gospel of Peter; Gospel of Thomas; Gospel of Philip; Gospel of the Lord (by Marcion); Secret Gospel of Mark. Available from Wesley Center Online

Pseudonymous Writings – includes the Teachings of Addeus the Apostle; Epistle of the Apostles; Community Rule; Apocryphon of James; Correspondence of Jesus and Abgar; Sophia of Jesus Christ; John the Evangelist; Apocryphon of John; Narrative of Joseph of Arimathaea; Epistle to the Laodiceans; Correspondence of Paul and Seneca; Prayer of the Apostle Paul; Letter of Peter to Philip; Letter of Pontius Pilate to the Roman Emperor; Report of Pilate to Caesar; Report of Pilate to Tiberius; Excerpts from Pistis Sophia; Avenging of the Saviour; Three Steles of Seth; Book of Thomas the Contender. Available from Wesley Center Online


Miscellaneous
collections from non- Christian sites


New Testament Apocrypha: complete index – an excellent collection of most, if not all, New Testament apocryphal and pseudepigraphal writings— even those not available online from the links above. Available from Comparative Religion: Religions of the World

Nag Hammadi Codics – "a collection of thirteen ancient codices containing over fifty texts, was discovered in upper Egypt in 1945. This immensely important discovery includes a large number of primary Gnostic scriptures— texts once thought to have been entirely destroyed during the early Christian struggle to define 'orthodoxy'— scriptures such as the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Philip, and the Gospel of Truth." Available from The Gnosis Archive

The Gnostic Society Library – a collection of Gnostic writings, several interesting links, etc. Available from The Gnosis Archive

fixed link updated Gospel of Judas – © 2006 The National Geographic Society. Translation by Rodolphe Kasser, Marvin Meyer and Gregor Wurst, in collaboration with François Gaudard. A Coptic manuscript and an English translation of this manuscript are available (only in PDF). Learn more about this Gnostic writing (and others) from an article by Jeffrey Kloha ("Jesus and the Gnostic Gospels," Concordia Theological Quarterly 71 (Apr 2007): 121–144; link is to a PDF of article)

new link The Gospel of Jesus's Wife : A New Coptic Gospel Papyrus – © 2012 President and Fellows of Harvard College. "Resources about the fourth- century papyrus fragment available here are images of the fragment and a translation of the text; information (in question- and- answer format) about the fragment; and a draft of Karen L. King's article about the gospel papyrus." This fragment has spurred debate and several responses, including one from Francis Watson ("The Gospel of Jesus' Wife : How a fake Gospel- Fragment was composed")

dead link Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha and Sacred Writings – Latter Day Saints (LDS). Numerous unique and useful links are available here, but be aware that the webmaster is influenced by the doctrines of the Latter Day Saints


Book Resources
(select authors)



Lost Christianities : The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew – © Bart D. Ehrman (Oxford Press, 2003). "The early Christian Church was a chaos of contending beliefs. Some groups of Christians claimed that there was not one God but two or twelve or thirty. Some believed that the world had not been created by God but by a lesser, ignorant deity. Certain sects maintained that Jesus was human but not divine, while others said he was divine but not human. In Lost Christianities, Bart D. Ehrman offers a fascinating look at these early forms of Christianity and shows how they came to be suppressed, reformed, or forgotten. All of these groups insisted that they upheld the teachings of Jesus and his apostles, and they all possessed writings that bore out their claims, books reputedly produced by Jesus's own followers. Modern archaeological work has recovered a number of key texts, and as Ehrman shows, these spectacular discoveries reveal religious diversity that says much about the ways in which history gets written by the winners. Ehrman's discussion ranges from considerations of various 'lost scriptures'— including forged gospels supposedly written by Simon Peter, Jesus's closest disciple, and Judas Thomas, Jesus's alleged twin brother— to the disparate beliefs of such groups as the Jewish- Christian Ebionites, the anti- Jewish Marcionites, and various 'Gnostic' sects. Ehrman examines in depth the battles that raged between 'proto- orthodox Christians'— those who eventually compiled the canonical books of the New Testament and standardized Christian belief— and the groups they denounced as heretics and ultimately overcame. Scrupulously researched and lucidly written, Lost Christianities is an eye- opening account of politics, power, and the clash of ideas among Christians in the decades before one group came to see its views prevail"

Lost Scriptures : Books that Did Not Make It into the New Testament – © Bart D. Ehrman (Oxford Press, 2005). "A companion volume to Bart Ehrman's Lost Christianities, this book offers an anthology of up- to- date and readable translations of many non- canonical writings from the first centuries after Christ— texts that have been for the most part lost or neglected for almost two millennia. Here is an array of remarkably varied writings from early Christian groups whose visions of Jesus differ dramatically from our contemporary understanding. Readers will find Gospels supposedly authored by the apostle Philip, James the brother of Jesus, Mary Magdalen, and others. There are Acts originally ascribed to John and to Thecla, Paul's female companion; there are Epistles allegedly written by Paul to the Roman philosopher Seneca. And there is an apocalypse by Simon Peter that offers a guided tour of the afterlife, both the glorious ecstasies of the saints and the horrendous torments of the damned, and an Epistle by Titus, a companion of Paul, which argues page after page against sexual love, even within marriage, on the grounds that physical intimacy leads to damnation. In all, the anthology includes fifteen Gospels, five non- canonical Acts of the Apostles, thirteen Epistles, a number of Apocalypses and Secret Books, and several Canon lists. Ehrman has included a general introduction, plus brief introductions to each piece. This important anthology gives readers a vivid picture of the range of beliefs that battled each other in the first centuries of the Christian era"
   
  


 
 
   
A note on colour schemes used here.

Some may wonder about the colour schemes that were first introduced in June 2006 and have been developing since then. In short, areas with

 blue background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively safe (orthodox) in content since they generally do not promote, advocate or defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous or heretical material (however, see disclaimer at top of this web page).

 red background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively dangerous (unorthodox) in content since they generally do promote, advocate and defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous and even heretical material. Included are resources from quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions, cults, agnosticism, atheism, philosophical religions, the occult and other (non- Christian) religions.


 purple background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively confused in content since they generally provide both safe (orthodox) and dangerous (unorthodox) material, but for whatever reason they do not make any distinction between them. (See disclaimer at top of page.) Included in this section are Bibles containing the Apocryphal (Deuterocanonical) writings.


Some may disagree with the colour schemes I have given to one or more resources, but that is to be expected. Also, for the sake of clarity, resources with blue backgrounds do not necessarily reflect my beliefs.


A quick guide to common graphics and their meaning.

new link – this is a newly added link

offlinethis link is active but its content is offline (see that website for more information)

dead linkthis link is no longer active or its content has been removed; if you find a link, please email it to me

link wanteda link could not be found with this content; if you find a link, please email it to me

fixed linkthe previous link to this content was broken (dead) but has been replaced with a link that works

updatedinformation about the content of this link has been updated

correctedinformation about the content of this link, section, or area was found to be in error and has been corrected

addedthis is a newly added section or area

modifiedinformation about this link, section or area has been modified (perhaps in an attempt to make it more clear)

renamed – the link remains the same, but the title (and perhaps the content) has been modified

archived – the original link is no longer active or its content has been removed, but has been replaced with a link to a backup copy (perhaps from a mirror site or the Internet Archive)

internal linkthis is an internal link (to something available on dialegomai)
  
  
   



Apologetics vs. Modern Schisms & Heresies



Christian Apologetics
(addressing quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions)

This section includes links to resources or collections that address quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions (including cults and certain schisms), their beliefs, creeds and teachings which conservative Christian apologists consider to be problematic, erroneous, or heretical. Additional material may be found under creeds or catechisms (left column), or under a specific denomination (right column). If you are searching for apologetic material on other religious beliefs unrelated to Christianity, links are available in the next section (below).
   For an examination of the beliefs, creeds and doctrines of these schisms, cults and pseudo- Christian religions, links may be available under the Other Side of the Fence section (below).


 
Collections
various quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions


Ravi Zacharias International Ministries – "to support, expand, and enhance the preaching and teaching ministry of Ravi Zacharias, distinctive in its strong evangelistic and apologetic foundation, intended to touch both the heart and the intellect of the thinkers and opinion- makers of society with the Truth of the Gospel of Jesus Christ"

updated Issues, Etc. – Confessional Lutheran (LC–MS). Features numerous topics on both recent and historical events; guest speakers are either apologists or representatives from various conservative denominations. "Defending the faith … teaching the truth." An On- demand audio archive (2008– current) is available "on demand" from Issues, Etc. The older MP3 and WMA audio archive (2003– 2008) is no longer available from KFUO AM radio. A journal and other links are also available

new link SoundWitness – Confessional Lutheran (LC–MS). "A Lutheran apologetics ministry dedicated to keeping the 'false' out of doctrine." Primarily addresses Watchtower / Jehovah's Witnesses, but now also extends into addressing the erroneous beliefs and teachings of other sects and cults

new link Reasonable Faith with William Lane Craig – © Reasonable Faith. This website "aims to provide in the public arena an intelligent, articulate, and uncompromising yet gracious Christian perspective on the most important issues concerning the truth of the Christian faith today, such as: the existence of God; the meaning of life; the objectivity of truth; the foundation of moral values; the creation of the universe; intelligent design; the reliability of the Gospels; the uniqueness of Jesus; the historicity of the resurrection; [and] the challenge of religious pluralism. Reasonable Faith features the work of philosopher and theologian Dr. William Lane Craig in order to carry out its three-fold mission: to provide an articulate, intelligent voice for biblical Christianity in the public arena; to challenge unbelievers with the truth of biblical Christianity; [and] to train Christians to state and defend Christian truth claims with greater effectiveness" (cf. About Reasonable Faith). Includes links to scholarly articles, popular articles, select debate transcripts, questions and answers, videos and audios (of debates, talks, interviews), podcasts (Reasonable Faith and Defenders), current events blog, open forums and more. Also check out their YouTube sites (Reasonable Faith and Dr Craig videos)

Walter Martin's Religious InfoNet – "to provide answers to those searching for spiritual direction in their lives, as well as encourage and educate Christians to stand up for their faith"

Answers in Action (AIA) – "a dynamic non- profit, evangelical, Christian organization based in Costa Mesa, California, which trains individuals to think logically and reasonably about all things"

Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM) – "to equip Christians with good information on doctrine, various religious groups (Mormonism, Jehovah's Witnesses, etc.), cults, Evolution, New Age, and related subjects"

new link Alpha & Omega Ministries – © Alpha & Omega Ministries

Department of Christian Defense – © Edward L. Dalcour. "The purpose of the Department of Christian Defense is to proclaim and defend the gospel of Jesus Christ against those who controvert the essentials of historic biblical faith. Also to provide information to educate and equip Christians to reasonably and confidently share their faith with members of non- Christian cults and anyone that denies the fundamental doctrines of the Christian faith: The doctrine of the ontological Trinity; one eternal God; Jesus as the eternal God; the physical resurrection of Jesus Christ, justification through faith alone, Scripture as the sole infallible authoritative regula fidei ('rule of faith') for the church 'sufficient above all things,' (cf. Athanasius, De Synodis 6); virgin birth; etc."

Cult Awareness & Information Centre – "CAIC educates the public about the technique used by ALL cults and spiritually abusive churches, and how to counteract them. If you have a family member of a friend involved in a cult make sure you learn to identify a cult by it's behavior (not doctrinal differences). … We have read message after message from confused individuals, many of whom spent years on their own trying to figure their way out of the traps of oppressive religious groups until one day stumbling upon the CAIC web site. They tell us that the information on our web site was like a 'light bulb' that turned on and helped them to find their way out of a mental maze"

fixed link Reasoning from the Scriptures – © Ron Rhodes. Reformed (Calvinist). This is "a discipleship ministry that exists to help you grow strong in the Word of God and equip you to become knowledgeable in the application of biblical wisdom"

Spotlight Ministries – "dedicated to upholding and defending the Christian faith. This site contains information on various new religious movements, cults, the occult, and the New Age Movement, and examines them from a Christian perspective. There are also many articles of general religious interest, apologetics, and theology"

Stand to Reason Commentaries: Apologetics – "working to build active, equipped, engaging ambassadors for Jesus Christ." Available from Stand to Reason

updated Watchman Fellowship, Inc. – "a ministry of Christian discernment, focusing on cults and new religious movements. Watchman Fellowship serves the Christian and secular community as a resource for education, counseling, and non- coercive intervention and evangelism training." Also see their article on Heresies : Then and Now. Available on Watchman Fellowship, Inc

FactNet – designed "to protect the most universal and basic constitutional freedom, the single freedom that is an essential prerequisite to the meaningful exercise of all of our other freedoms— freedom of mind! Factnet focuses on protecting freedom of mind from harms caused by all forms of mind control and unethical influence. In its earlier years (1993– 2001) Factnet focused on mind control and unethical influence as was commonly found in destructive cults. In 2002 it has expanded its mission to also cover mind control and unethical influence as found in governments, corporations, social organizations, advertising / marketing, political organizations, the military and family groups"

Apologetics Index – "This site offers information that a) helps equip Christians to logically present and defend the Christian faith, and that b) encourages Christians and non- Christians to understand, evaluate and compare various religious claims"

Cults.co.nz (New Zealand Cults, Sects, Religions, Christian Organisations, and other groups) – © Ian Mander. "Although called 'The New Zealand Cult List', the list is now much broader than just a list of the cults in this country. It contains both religious and secular groups, Christian and non- Christian groups. Some individuals are also included. The list is written from a Christian perspective and is primarily intended as a resource for New Zealand Christians. However, it may still be of some use to non- Christians, and people in other countries"

new link The Rick A. Ross Institute – © Rick Ross. "The Rick A. Ross Institute (RI) of New Jersey is a nonprofit, tax- exempt 501(c)(3) organization devoted to public education and research. RI's mission is to study destructive cults, controversial groups and movements and to provide a broad range of information and services easily accessible to the public for assistance and educational purposes. RI maintains a large archive on the Internet and is available to assist researchers, the media, professionals and those concerned with accurate information about various cults, groups and movements and related issues of interest. RI is an institutional member of the New Jersey Library Association" (cf. Mission Statement)

new link The Cult News Network – "The Cult News Network is a daily listing of interesting links about cults, controversial groups and ideological movements.… The purpose of the Network is twofold: First, it provides a resource for people interested in controversial groups.… The second purpose of the Network is to be fun! The Network encourages users to participate through free membership, and offers an interesting, often amusing source of ever- changing content. Registered users can submit links, comment on articles, and vote on the value / interest of each item" (cf. Help page)

fixed link updated The Center for Apologetics Research – designed "to equip Christian leaders and laymen in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) for discernment, defense of the faith and cult evangelism (1 Peter 3:15, Jude 3, 2 Timothy 2:25) by providing training and resource materials in their national languages." This website is originally in Russian, but the link I have provided is to the English translation. Some links may take you to articles in the Russian language, but if you use Google Chrome (or similar resources that translate websites) you should be able to read them

updated equip.org – © Christian Research Institute (CRI). "Exists to provide Christians worldwide with carefully researched information and well- reasoned answers that encourage them in their faith and equip them to intelligently represent it to people influenced by ideas and teachings that assault or undermine orthodox, biblical Christianity." Also features The Bible Answer Man, with Hank Hanegraaff. Also see their CRInstitute Channel on YouTube. Please Note: While I believe Hanegraaff is fairly solid in his evaluation, refutation and teachings on most issues, it has come to my attention that he now supports the Local Church movement of Watchman Nee, which is recognised as being heretical. His support of this movement seems to be based primarily on their convictions and teachings on the Christian lifestyle, but Hanegraaff seems to overlook significant problems with their theology including their modalistic understanding of God (which they erroneously claim to be the doctrine of the Trinity)
  

 
Specifics
specific quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions


Christian Science
(pantheism; aka Church of Christ, Scientist)
(not Scientology)



Christian Way – © Christian Way, Inc. "If you are a Christian Scientist: We care deeply about you! Mrs. Eddy said, 'The time for thinkers has come.' We challenge you to browse this site and think about the evidence it offers. … If you are reading Science and Health and considering becoming a Christian Scientist: We hope you'll read this site carefully and balance it against the claims and promises that you are reading about in Science and Health and hearing from the Christian Science Church. It's your decision whether or not to become a follower of Mary Baker Eddy, but we want you to have enough information to make an informed choice. … If you are a former Christian Scientist: We are here for you! Let us know how we can be a spiritual or emotional encouragement to you. If you are a Christian sharing with a Christian Scientist: We are delighted that you have found us and hope that you will find our materials helpful. If you have questions or concerns about sharing with your Christian Science friends and loved ones, we would be happy to help you in any way we can. Feel free to contact us with questions, concerns, or prayer requests"

Christian Science – a collection of writings addressing Christian Science. "Christian Science teaches that reality is an interpretation of Divine Mind, that Jesus was not the Christ, that His sacrifice did not clean from sin, that sickness and evil are illusions, and that the Bible can only be understood correctly through its teachings." Available from Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM)

fixed link Christian Science – © 2000 Watchman Fellowship, Inc. A brief profile on Christian Science including an overview of its history, problematic doctrines, and a Biblical response to those doctrines. Available from Watchmen Fellowship, Inc


Jehovah's Witnesses
(henotheism; polytheism; quasi- Arianism; aka JW)


updated Quotes.Watchtower.CA – "A collection of quotes from literature published by the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society: '… delightful, correct words of truth …' " Please Note: This is a mirror site of the original Canadian site, which was shut down after it was sued & acquired by the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. Read more about this case and its outcome from ReligiousNewsBlog.com. A PDF copy of the settlement is also available

new link JW Facts – © Paul Grundy

new link Six Screens of the Watchtower – © SixScreensoftheWatchtower.com. "Our mission is to expose the real truth behind the destructive cult known as the Jehovah's Witnesses. Active Witnesses are discovering the real 'truth' and are now realizing that there is life after The Watchtower"

new link The Watchtower Lies – © Watchtowerlies

dead link  Beyond Jehovah's Witnesses – "This site contains information for: People who have left the Witnesses; People who are thinking of leaving; People who have been forced to leave; People who are thinking of joining. We are not here to 'de- convert' you. If you are happy as a Jehovah's Witness, then this site is of only academic interest to you"

Free Minds – "promoting awareness of the Watchtower and its authoritarian tactics." Numerous audio and video files are also available from RandyTV.com

Jehovah's Witnesses – Numerous detailed and useful articles that examine the doctrines of Jehovah's Witnesses, some of their doctrinal pamphlets, and their New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. Includes grammatical considerations. Available from the Department of Christian Defense

Jehovah's Witnesses – a collection of writings addressing Jehovah's Witnesses. "The Jehovah's Witnesses go door- to- door, want you to do 'book' studies with them, and teach doctrines not in line with the Bible. They are persistent and well trained by the Watchtower Organization." Available from Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM)

Watchtower Information Service – "your source for info on Jehovah's Witnesses and the Watchtower Society." See also their links to other (ex-) JW sites section

Jehovah's Witnesses – "Jehovah's Witnesses consider themselves to be the only true Christians. However, their organization— the Watchtower Bible & Tract Society— denies and / or contradicts several of the essential doctrines of the Christian faith." Available on Apologetics Index

JW Files: Research on Jehovah's Witnesses – contains numerous scans from and articles addressing Watchtower doctrines

fixed link Jehovah's Witnesses (Articles) – "articles on Jehovah's Witnesses are available from The Watchman Expositor. Many terms in these articles are linked to the Index of Cults and Religions for easier reading and research." Available from Watchmen Fellowship, Inc

fixed link Jehovah's Witnesses – an introductory summary on the origin, world view, teaching, preaching, rules and regulations of the Jehovah's Witnesses. Available from the Dialog Center


Latter Day Saints, and
Reorganised Latter Day Saints, and
Fundamentalist Latter Day Saints
(polytheism; Gnosticism; aka LDS, RLDS, FLDS, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Mormonism)



fixed link updated Mormons in Transition – © Institute for Religious Research. "A non- denominational, non- profit Christian foundation devoted to the study of religious claims in light of history and the Bible." Indepth and includes abundant resources in response to the Book of Abraham, Book of Mormon, Alleged References to the First Vision, Gospel Principles (Teaching Manual), Joseph Smith, Doctrine and the Bible, Mormon History, and more. Other resources include the Book of Mormon (1830), scanned images of the entire Book of Commandments (1833) and Doctrines & Covenants (1835), Book Reviews, Personal Stories, Salvation Information, links to Support Groups and more. Available from the Institute for Religious Research

Mormonism – Numerous detailed and useful articles that examine the doctrines of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints (LDS), the Book of Mormon, and some other considerations. Available from the Department of Christian Defense

Mormonism – a collection of writings addressing the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS). "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- day Saints, commonly known as the Mormon church, teaches doctrines in direct opposition to historic Christianity, yet it claims to be the true church of Jesus Christ. Is Mormonism really Christian? We hope to help you answer that question here." Available from Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM)


Local Church / Witness Lee
(modalism; includes Watchman Nee)



fixed link updated Cult Awareness & Information Centre: Local Church of Witness Lee – includes articles on their history, practices, strategies for evangelism, exclusiveness, certain doctrines, and controversies with Christians. Available from the Cult Awareness and Information Centre

The Local Church – includes an overview of Witness Lee's "Local Church" and related organisations, their translation of Scriptures (The Recovery Version – RcV) and numerous articles. Available on Apologetics Index

'Local Church' Information Site – © 2003 Daniel Azuma. "The purpose of this web resource is to provide a free library of information and research materials on the 'Local Church' of Witness Lee, including articles, essays, personal testimonies both from current and former members, and web links." This site is primarily an information site rather than an apologetics site, though some apologetic material may be found. Includes a website list of their "critics"
 
 

Oneness
(modalism; quasi- Sabellianism)



Oneness Pentecostals – Numerous detailed and useful articles that examine the doctrines of Oneness Pentecostalism. Includes grammatical considerations. Available from the Department of Christian Defense

Oneness Pentecostal – a collection of writings addressing Oneness Pentecostalism. "Oneness Pentecostal theology is a false doctrine that denies the Trinity, states there is only one person in the Godhead, that you must be baptized to be saved, and that speaking in tongues is a necessary sign for salvation. Oneness Pentecostal theology is not biblical." Available from Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM)

fixed link Oneness Pentecostalism – © 2000 Watchman Fellowship, Inc. A brief profile on Oneness Pentecostalism including an overview of its history, problematic doctrines, and a Biblical response to those doctrines. Available from Watchmen Fellowship, Inc

Refuted: 60 Questions on the Godhead – a response to the "60 Questions on the Godhead" published by the United Pentecostal Church International. Available from the Interactive Bible


Roman Catholicism
(Scripture interpreted using traditions, councils, magistrates, ex cathedra)


link wanted Examination of the Council of Trent (1565– 1573) – Martin Chemnitz. Confessional Lutheran. See Martin Chemnitz, Examination of the Council of Trent (4 vols.; translated by Fred Kraemer; St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 1971– 1986)
   "Chemnitz analyzed the canons and decrees of the Council of Trent in four books and showed by exhaustive evidence from Scripture and from both the most ancient and the purer among the more modern teachers of the church where the Council of Trent had departed from the teaching of Scripture. In the first of these volumes, in the section on Scripture and Tradition, he worked out the so- called formal principle of the Reformation, that the Scripture, and not tradition or a combination of the Scripture and tradition, is the source and norm of doctrine in the Christian church.
   "[The] first volume, which appeared in 1565, covers the chief articles of the Christian faith. In the remaining three volumes he treats with equal clarity the sacraments and the abuses in the Roman Catholic Church, which the Council of Trent had sought to defend.
   "The Examen became famous at once. It was translated into German by Georg Nigrinus, into French by M. Vassorius, and by 1582 the section concerning traditions had been translated and published in English. The Examen is widely acknowledged not only as a masterful polemic against the canons and decrees of the Council of Trent but also as a thorough exposition of the faith and teaching of the adherents of the Augsburg Confession. It has earned not only the highest praise of Lutherans but also the respect of noted Roman Catholics." Martin Chemnitz, "Biographical Sketch of Martin Chemnitz," in Part 1 (4 vols.; vol. 1 in Examination of the Council of Trent; translated by Fred Kraemer; St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 1971), 1:21– 22


Novus Ordo Watch – Catholic (Old Roman). "Novus Ordo Watch has one simple purpose: it is that of an educational resource. Our purpose is to document, collect, archive, and preserve articles, news reports, historic and modern photographs, books, diaries, translations, historic audio and video tape footage on the Catholic Church both pre- 1958 and post- 1958. This activity on our part to archive and preserve important documents will prove of grave historical importance in the future. It will consitute a historical record of current primary sources dealing with the Catholic Church." See their section on Benedict XVI

True Catholic – Catholic (Old Roman). "It is likely that most of you think that the 'Catholic Church' now centered in Rome, in the Vatican, is the Catholic Church. Since 1958 (after the death of Pope Pius XII on October 9, 1958), the holders of offices there, have usurped the name of the Catholic Church from which they of their own free will departed. They left the faith, and therefore they left the Church that was founded by Christ on the apostles with Peter as its head. Their defection from the faith is something we must prove and that is the burden of much of the literature that you will find in this website"

Patrick Pollock – © Patrick John Pollock. Catholic (Old Roman). This website used to include numerous tracts and writings (by Patrick Pollock), but many of them have been turned into books which he now sells online. These writings include 101 Heresies of Anti- Pope John Paul II (aka Karol Wojtyla) and 101 Heresies of Anti- Pope Benedict XVI (aka Joseph Ratzinger), which compares the heretical teachings of Popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI with what the Catholic Church has historically taught (up until Vatican I)
 


Society of Friends
(post- modern, anything goes; unity is generally based on non- violent social justice rather than commonality of beliefs; aka Quakers)


link wanted


Unification Church
(polytheism; aka Moonies)


offline archived The Unification Church – a fairly detailed overview of the Unification Church, its history, beliefs, doctrines, and some other interesting information. Available from The Religious Movements Page. PLEASE NOTE: The founding editor of this project (Jeffrey K. Hadden) died in 2003. The new editor- in- chief (Douglas E. Cowan) is updating and moving the entire project from the University of Virginia website (now offline) to its new home on the University of Waterloo (not yet available). A backup of the site (11 Dec 2007) is available on Internet Archive

fixed link updated Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity – a brief overview of the history, beliefs and doctrines of the Unification Church, along with Scriptural responses to several of its more problematic beliefs and doctrines. Another informative link is The Unification Church: Moonshine for the Soul. Available from Watchman Fellowship, Inc

new link Unification Church : Christian or Cult? – © John Beardsley (Biblical Discernment Ministries). Available on The Beardsley Ministry Homepage

new link The Unification Church – © Matt Slick. A very brief overview of the Unification Church. Available from Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM)

new link About the Unification Church – A brief overview of the Unification Church, with links to numerous articles that demonstrate (from Scripture) that it "is— at best— a cult of Christianity." Available on Apologetics Index

new link Reverend Moon – © Let Us Reason Ministries. This article continues for several linked pages (i.e. parts 2 and 3)


United Church
(modalism; beliefs are confused, vague, post- modern and all- inclusive)


link wanted


Universalism
(belief that everyone will be saved)


Universalism – a collection of writings addressing Universalism. "Universalism is the teaching that through the atonement of Jesus, every person who ever lived will ultimately be saved. It is a relatively small movement in America. But this error can have some serious ramifications. Does the Bible teach that everyone who has ever lived will be saved? No. It doesn't. Find out why here." Available from Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM)


Word Faith Movement
(most claim divine revelation, all emphasise prosperity theology, but their teachings and so- called revelations often conflict on significant points)


fixed link Jesse Duplantis and Mormonism – a brief article noting some parallels between the doctrines of Jesse Duplantis and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Available from the Department of Christian Defense

archived Heresies of the Word Faith Movement – a list of Scripturally problematic or heretical quotes from various Word Faith leaders. A  backup copy (19 April 2008) of this page is available on Internet Archive

new link Heresies of the Word Faith Movement – © Damon Whitsell. Contains a list of quotes from numerous Word Faith leaders, along with Scripture passages that they contradict

The Lamp Ministry: Word of Faith Movement – © Hughie Seaborn. Available from The Lamp Ministry

archived The Word of Faith Movement – an introductory summary of the Word of Faith Movement's history, beliefs and teachings, etc. Please Note: This webpage is published in Danish and requires Google Translate (or similar) to roughly translate it into English. Available from the (now closed and archived) Dialogcentret

new link Christianity in Crisis (book) – © Hank Hanegraaff. An audio resource (with recordings of Word Faith leaders) is also available on YouTube (parts 1, 2, 3 and 4), which can be used to supplement the book. A more recent update of this resource is Christianity in Crisis : The 21st Century by the same author
   
   


Other Side of the Fence



Modern Schisms & Heresies
(beliefs of quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions)

"Other Side of the Fence" is divided into two areas. The first area provides resources from quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions (including cults and certain schisms of Christianity), which contain problematic, erroneous and even heretical beliefs, creeds (confessions of faith), doctrines (teachings) and / or practices from a conservative Christian perspective. The second area provides resources from non- Christian religions. Granted, members or advocates of any of the quasi-, pseudo-, or non- Christian religions listed below may view conservative Christianity as being on the "other side of the fence."
   Regardless, it is encouraged that everyone read the following document (which I think is valuable to consider, regardless of your background) before venturing on to examine the links provided in this section (or any section, for that matter). The short film is also useful, but certain points are so vague that they overlap into authentic Christianity (e.g., guilt from sin: While guilt should accompany and follow sin, many quasi-, pseudo- and non- Christian religions use guilt as a means of control— like when they demand so many hours, repetitions or acts of 'good works' to either 'atone' for sin or 'prove' genuine repentance, etc.; however, this distinction isn't made clear in the film).

 

Recommended


Are you the Victim of Mind Control?
– © 2003 Spotlight Ministries, Vincent McCann. "The purpose of this article is to give you the chance to test yourself to see if you are the victim of well known manipulative mind control techniques." This article also helps readers recognise "well known manipulative mind control techniques" so they can avoid being deceived by them

Mind Control Made Easy: How to Become a Cult Leader – © Free Minds, Inc. A short 12½ minute film that demonstrates some mind control and peer pressure techniques normally (but not exclusively) used by cults. Available only in RAM format from RandyTV.com

new link The Big Religion Chart – © ReligionFacts. "The ReligionFacts 'Big Religion Chart' is an attempt to summarize all the complexities of religions and belief systems into tiny little boxes on a single, quick- reference comparison chart. Yes, of course this is impossible. As we always warn with our comparison charts, this is no substitute for reading about religions in greater detail, talking with religious adherents, etc. But this religion comparison chart can (hopefully) be a useful and accessible way to 'get the gist' of some unfamiliar groups and compare basic beliefs and practices of the world's religions and belief systems. Currently, 43 belief systems are listed" (as of 10 January 2011)

 
Quasi- and Pseudo- Christian Religions


Christian Science
(pantheism; aka The Church of Christ, Scientist)
(not Scientology)


Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures – © 1875, 1906 Mary Baker Eddy. Christian Science. Available from Healing Unlimited

A Manual of the Mother Church: The First Church of Christ Scientist – © 1895, 1910 Mary Baker Eddy. Christian Science. Available from Healing Unlimited

Other Published Writings of Mary Baker Eddy – Christian Science. Available from Healing Unlimited

The Christian Science Monitor – Christian Science. "An international daily newspaper published Monday through Friday. Founded in 1908 by Mary Baker Eddy, it's now also a multimedia website, an e-mail edition, a personal digital assistant (PDA) edition, and a downloadable PDF of the print version … published by a church— The First Church of Christ, Scientist in Boston, Mass., USA. Everything in the Monitor is international and US news and features, except for one religious article that has appeared each day in The Home Forum section since 1908, at the request of the paper's founder, Mary Baker Eddy"

endtime.org – © Christian Science Endtime Center. Christian Science. A very informative website dedicated to Christian Science and the doctrines of Mary Baker Eddy. The Introduction to Christian Science includes a brief subject listing

Christian Science – © Ontario Consultants of Religious Tolerance. Includes a brief history and an overview on their beliefs, healing, and practices. Available from Religious Tolerance


Jehovah's Witnesses
renamed by J. F. Rutherford after C. T. Russell's death
(became a schism of Millennium Dawnism)
(henotheism; polytheism; quasi- Arianism; aka JW)



Millions Now Living Will Never Die! – © Joseph Franklin Rutherford. Jehovah's Witness

new link archived Archived Watchtower Publications (1879– 1985) – © International Bible Students Association, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, and others. Jehovah's Witness (and Millennium Dawnism). Most of these publications are scanned (PDF), no longer under copyright and are available from Archive.org. Watchtower Magazine (1879– 1949); Golden Age (1919– 1937), Consolation (1938) and Awake (1939– 1969) magazines; misc booklets (1889– 1961); misc books (1918– 1981); misc manuals (1945– 1955); first edition of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (1950– 1960); misc song books (1908– 1950); Kingdom News tracts (1918, 1939– 1946); Everybody's Paper tracts (1912); Informat tract (1952); misc other tracts (1911– 1931); year books (1927– 1959). Another collection (1877– 1959) contains scanned books, booklets, manuals, and song books mixed together, but it also has some material unavailable in aforesaid sections: Some debates, Studies in the Scriptures (vols 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), Photo Drama of Creation booklet (1914), and more. Also available are a collection of publications by C. T. Russell (Harvest Gleanings); John & Morton Edgar's Great Pyramid Passages vols 1 (1910) and 2 (1913), and Morton Edgar's The Great Pyramid trilogy: Its Spiritual Symbolism (1924), Its Scientific Features (1924), and Its Time Features (1924). A scanned copy of The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures (1969 and 1985) is also available

fixed link Watchtower – Jehovah's Witness. "Official Web Site of Jehovah's Witnesses"

offline updated Jehovah's Witnesses: Authorized Site of the Office of Public Information – Jehovah's Witness. The contents of this link have been updated and moved to the main Watchtower website (above)

Jehovah's Witnesses United – © Jehovah's Witnesses United. Jehovah's Witness. "Created so that scholarly information supporting the Watchtower Bible & Tract Society's teachings and the New World Translation could be collected in one location on the web. This site is not meant as a substitute for Society literature, but as a further resource for those who would like to 'dig deeper' "

renamed updated The Watchman's Post – Jehovah's Witness. "Jehovah's Witnesses and the Watchtower Society in Prophecy"

fixed link Scriptural Truths – Jehovah's Witness. "Removing the bias from the Scriptures"

In Defense of the New World Translation – Jehovah's Witness. Features numerous articles by Jehovah's Witnesses who, like certain advocates of the Authorised (1611) King James Version, argue that their translation is the only authoritative and undefiled English translation of Scriptures given to us by God

Jehovah's Witnesses – © Ontario Consultants of Religious Tolerance. A menu includes links to JW beliefs & practices, medical teachings, conflicts, handling child abuse, and additional resources. Available from Religious Tolerance


Latter Day Saints, and
Reorganised Latter Day Saints, and
Fundamentalist Latter Day Saints
(organised under Joseph Smith)
(polytheism; Gnosticism; aka LDS, RLDS, FLDS, The Church of Jesus Christ and Latter Day Saints; Mormonism)



renamed fixed link  The Scriptures – Latter Day Saints (LDS). Features links to the most recent edition of the Book of Mormon, The Doctrines and Covenants, and The Pearl of Great Price. Also features a Guide to the Scriptures, a Bible Dictionary (LDS), Bible maps, and more

Center Place – Reorganised Latter Day Saints (RLDS). Features the RLDS Book of Mormon (1908), Doctrines & Covenants, and Lectures on Faith. Also features the History of the Reorganised Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints


Millennium Dawnism
organised and named by C. T. Russell
(aka International Bible Students Association)
(henotheism; polytheism; quasi- Arianism)


new link archived Archived Publications (1879– 1959) – © International Bible Students Association, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, and others. Millennium Dawnism. Most of these publications are scanned (PDF), no longer under copyright and are available from Archive.org. Includes Herald of the Morning (1874– 1879); Watchtower Magazine (1879– 1949); misc booklets (1889– 1961); misc song books (1908– 1950); Everybody's Paper tracts (1912); misc other tracts (1911– 1931), Millennial Dawn (6 vols, 1891– 1904). Another collection (1877– 1959) contains scanned books, booklets, manuals, and song books mixed together, but it also has some material unavailable in aforesaid sections: Some debates with C. T. Russell, Studies in the Scriptures (vols 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), Hymns of Millennial Dawn (1905), Daily Heavenly Manna (1907), Photo Drama of Creation booklet (1914), Old Testament Comments (1916), Biography of Russell (1916), and more. Also available are N. H. Barbour's The Three Worlds (1875, funded by C. T. Russell); C. T. Russell's The Object and Manner of Our Lord's Return (1877); John & Morton Edgar's Great Pyramid Passages vols 1 (1910) and 2 (1913); a collection of publications by C. T. Russell (Harvet Gleanings); J. C. Largent & C. E. Stewart's The School of Prophets (1922); Morton Edgar's The Great Pyramid trilogy, Its Spiritual Symbolism (1924), Its Scientific Features (1924), and Its Time Features (1924); the booklet The Seven Thunders of Millennial Dawn (1928)

new link International Bible Students Association – © International Bible Students. Millennium Dawnism. Designed to connect users to some introductory articles and resources located mostly on their other websites (which contain even more articles, resources and links). "The association of International Bible Students has existed continuously since the days of Pastor Charles Taze Russell to the present. In Brother Russell's day, the IBSA was a cooperative association of Bible Student congregations worldwide, all united by the common beliefs taught in Brother Russell's Studies in the Scriptures series. The Watchtower was merely a publishing house and lecture service, with NO central control over these thousands of associated, but independent congregations. After the death of Brother Russell in 1916, J.F. Rutherford took control of the IBSA, acting in violation of Brother Russell's Will and the Watchtower Bylaws. By 1931 J. F. Rutherford had radically changed and reorganized the Watchtower into a different organization. He named his new organization 'Jehovah's Witnesses,' in order to distinguish it from the various groups formed by the 75% of original Bible Students no longer connected. Hundreds of these Bible Student congregations worldwide have continued to the present, thus constituting a continuation of the original IBSA. These Bible Students remain united in the original early Watchtower beliefs taught by Brother Russell" (see original). Many of their beliefs are very similar to what Jehovah's Witnesses believe and teach

renamed fixed link Harvest Truth DataBase (HTDB) – © International Bible Students (IBS). Millennium Dawnism. A database of various "study materials," "devotional guides" and other links. The study materials include the Old and New Testaments, Charles Taze Russell's Tabernacles Shadows of Better Sacrifices (1881), 6- volume Studies in the Scriptures (1886– 1904), Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence (1879– 1916; i.e. the original magazine), expanded Bible comments (similar to notes in a Study Bible), and some other resources. The devotional guides include Daily Heavenly Manna (with archive of past daily devotions), a collection of Hymns of Millennial Dawn with coinciding commentary (Songs in the Night), a collection of Poems of Dawn, and some other resources

Charles Taze Russell – Millennium Dawnism. Numerous positive articles about Charles Taze Russell and his doctrines

Studies in the Scriptures – © 1916 Charles Taze Russell. Millennium Dawnism. Available from the North Seattle Bible Students


Oneness
(modalism; quasi- Sabellianism)



The Oneness of God – © 1993 David K. Bernard. Oneness (Pentecostal). A theological work that examines Christian monotheism, the nature of God, the names and titles of God, Jesus is God, the Son of God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, Old Testament explanations, New Testament explanations, oneness believers in church history and trinitarianism

fixed link 60 Questions on the Godhead – © United Pentecostal Church International. Oneness (Pentecostal). An article designed to debunk the doctrine of the Trinity while promoting modalism using "answers to sixty questions concerning the Godhead as found in the Bible." Available from United Pentecostal Church International

The Oneness of God – © Ken Raggio. Oneness (Pentecostal). "Both Moses and Jesus Christ taught this doctrine above all others. There can be no denying that the Oneness of God is a controversial subject. Yet most people are grossly misinformed about its meaning. The most commonly heard objections are not even based on true Oneness definitions. Everyone NEEDS this understanding ahead of all other spiritual revelation"


Roman Catholicism


See under Roman Catholicism (right column, in Denominations section)


Society of Friends
(post- modern, anything goes; unity is generally based on non- violent social justice rather than commonality of beliefs; aka Quakers)



new link The Religious Society of Friends – Contains links to numerous articles

new link Quakers Canada : Canadian Yearly Meeting of the Society of Friends – © Canadian Yearly Meeting. "Officially we are called the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). Unofficially, we call ourselves either Quakers or Friends. To begin with, we are a religious society." Follows the beliefs and teachings of George Fox, who taught that a "human being can have direct communion with God, without the intervention of another human being (a minister), an institution (the church), or a book (the Bible). Ordinary people sit together anywhere in silent worship, without clergy, liturgy, or sacraments (all of life is sacred). There we can feel a Presence and listen for the voice of God in our own lives. We are seekers of Truth, and that Truth is based on direct experience. Each of us has 'that of God' within us— the indwelling spirit of Christ, the Light within— which links us to God and to each other. Rank, race, religion, political persuasion, all these things become unimportant. We are equal, and can speak to 'that of God' in others" (cf. An Introduction)

new link QuakerInfo.com – © Bill Samuel. "Your online source for information about the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)." Contains reference material, informational articles and essays, as well as links to forums, etc.

new link Quaker Information Center : A Gateway to Quakerism – "The Quaker Information Center works on behalf of the Religious Society of Friends to answer questions from Friends and non- Friends alike, directing inquirers to information and resources from and about the Society of Friends. The Center was located in Philadelphia and under the capable leadership of Chel Avery until July 2010. The Quaker Information Center is now a virtual center provided as a service of the Earlham School of Religion"

new link The Religious Society of Friends : The Quakers – © Ontario Consultants of Religious Tolerance. A menu includes Quaker history in Europe and North America, Beliefs and practices, Quaker meetings (groups), service organizations, church finder and resources, and various viewpoints on the Society of Friends and homosexuality


Unification Church
(polytheism; aka Moonies)


new link Family Federation for World Peace and Unification – © HSA- UWC. "The Unification Church is comprised of families striving to embody the ideal of true love and to establish a world of peace and unity among all peoples, races, and religions as envisioned by Rev. Sun Myung Moon. Members of the Unification Church accept and follow Reverend Moon’s particular religious teaching, the Divine Principle"

new link Unification Home Page – "A presentation of the life, teachings, and public work of Rev. Sun Myung Moon and his wife Mrs. Hak Ja Han Moon"

new link The Unification Church founded by Rev. Sun Myung Moon – © Ontario Consultants of Religious Tolerance. A brief description of their history, beliefs and practices


United Church
(modalism; beliefs are confused, vague, post- modern and all- inclusive)


See under United Church (right column, in Denominations section)


Universalism
(belief that everyone will be saved)


Christian Universalism (Universal Reconciliation) and Related Concepts – Universalism. A large collection "of sources, including speeches, articles, tracts, and other presentations" that "have been composed over a period of time." Available from Ken Allen's webpage on the website of Auburn University

archived Pastor Russell Writes Concerning the Universal Reconciliation – Universalism. An insightful correspondence between A. E. Knoch (Universalism) and C. T. Russell (Millennial Dawnism). A backup of this correspondence (16 Dec 2010) is available on Internet Archive

Tentmaker Ministries – Universalism. A website dedicated to Universalism

offline God's Truth for Today! – Universalism. A main library archive (by numerous authors) advocating Universalism is also available from this site


Word Faith Movement
(most claim divine revelation, all emphasise prosperity theology, but their teachings and so- called revelations often conflict on significant points)


renamed updated William Branham – © William Branham.com. Oneness (Word Faith). Some of his doctrines include the denial of the Trinity, the belief that baptism is in the name of Jesus alone (not in name of the "Father, Son, and Holy Ghost," Matt 28:19), and that original sin involved Eve's fornication with Satan in Eden (by equating the tree of life with Jesus and tree of knowledge of good and evil with Satan), among numerous other ditties. See also another website (Cloverdale Bibleway) dedicated to William Branham

updated archived Charles Capps Ministries – © Charles Capps Ministries. Word Faith. Doctrines include the assertion that humans are embodied spirit creatures (cf. Annette Capps, Do You Know Who You Are?, (13 Feb 2009) Internet Archive) and a misuse of God's Word to evidence a "believe it to receive it" doctrine that emphasises faith- healing, etc.: "God's Word will get you saved, healed or filled with the Holy Ghost the same way that the miraculous conception [of Jesus in the virgin Mary] took place! Any believer that will conceive God's Word concerning healing in their spirit, it will eventually manifest itself in their physical body! If you conceive God's Word concerning prosperity, then prosperity will manifest itself in your business affairs. When you conceive God's Word concerning the Holy Spirit, He will manifest Himself in your spirit" (Charles Capps, Jesus, The Word Made Flesh, (21 May 2009) Internet Archive). A media library with numerous doctrinal issues is available, but no concise statement of faith is otherwise available

Morris Cerullo World Evangelism – © Morris Cerullo World Evangelism. Word Faith. "Not only does God speak to him but his prophetic annunciations come with a special anointing of God's Presence. He received a divine, supernatural call from God to preach at the age of fifteen when God took him into the heavens and revealed Himself to him by a supernatural vision. From that time until now, Morris has never wavered in his commitment and zeal to fulfill the Great Commission to bring in a harvest of souls from around the world" (A Prophet to the Nations). A statement of faith, mission statement, Cerullo's teaching objectives and some additional information are also available

David Cho Evangelic Mission – © David Cho Evangelic Mission. Word Faith. A statement of faith is not available, but an archive of DCEM Journal is available and their "Core of Messages" section outline doctrines like "The Fivefold Gospel" and "The Threefold Blessing"

Kenneth Copeland Ministries – © Eagle Mountain International Church, Incorporated; a.k.a. Kenneth Copeland Ministries. Word Faith; Dispensational. Some teachings are ambiguous (e.g., will all believers speak in tongues, or only some?), many stretch God's Word beyond its intended audience or meaning (as demonstrated by its immediate or broader contexts). Usually this is done in an attempt to evidence a "believe and proclaim it to receive it" doctrine which emphasises a very broad understanding of faith healing (including physical, spiritual and financial; e.g., How To Receive Healing). To lack healing (physical, mental, spiritual, financal) is said to originate from a lack of faith or action (e.g., What to Do When Healing Doesn't Manifest). Resources include what we believe (includes statement of faith and mission), various topics (salvation, health & healing, relationships, prayer, finance), various media (videos, MP3, PDF) and other resources

Jesse Duplantis Ministries – © Jesse Duplantis Ministries. Word Faith. Some of his teachings have been modified to be more in line with Scripture, and they no longer mention that baptism with the Holy Spirit is evidenced by speaking in tongues (though they might still believe and teach it elsewhere). However, they continue to misuse God's Word in an attempt to evidence a "believe and proclaim it to receive it" doctrine that emphasises material and financial prosperity (as a result of investing in his ministry in particular). Some random articles (scattered around the website), a vision statement, statement of faith and a current edition of Voice of the Covenant magazine are available

RHEMA – © RHEMA (Kenneth Hagin). Word Faith. Includes Kenneth Hagin Ministries. In mid- 2003, Kenneth E. Hagin passed away and his firstborn son, Kenneth W. Hagin, has inherited the ministry. Some doctrines include belief that baptism with the Holy Spirit is evidenced in all Christian believers by speaking in tongues, that financial and material prosperity reflect spiritual prosperity (the lack of these things reflect a deficiency), and that God will physically heal every Christian who receives it by faith and proclamation (the lack of healing reflects a lack of faith). A study center, section on what we believe, a magazine archive and a Canadian website (among other things) are also available

Norvel Hayes Ministries – © Norvel Hayes Ministries. Word Faith. A statement of faith and other doctrinal resources are not available, but they do offer an online bookstore which sells resources on faith healing (physical, financial, etc.) using a "believe and proclaim it to receive it" method

updated archived Marilyn Hickey Ministries – © Marilyn Hickey Ministries. Word Faith. Unfortunately, they have taken most of their resources offline. However, based on previously available resources, many of their beliefs and teachings are influenced by William Branham (see backup of their article (11 Nov 2006) on Internet Archive). They teach that believers are not born again until after they have 'invited Jesus into their heart,' that the Holy Spirit is only given to believers upon request and will manifest Himself in born again believers through speaking in tongues (cf. Empowered by the Holy Spirit, V:C, D; see backup of article (13 Dec 2006) on Internet Archive). They also misrepresent Scripture in order to promote a "believe it to receive it" view of financial and material prosperity (cf. Miracles for Your Money Outline; see backup of article (20 Dec 2006) on Internet Archive), etc., but no clear description or belief is provided online concerning God, Jesus, the Holy Spirit or similar matters. Resources include a vague statement of faithtelevision and audio archives; their Bible Study resources are no longer free

fixed link Benny Hinn Ministries – © Benny Hinn Ministries. Word Faith. Some doctrines are unclear (e.g., "the one true God has revealed Himself … as embodying the principles of relationship and association, i.e., Father, Son, and Holy Ghost," and "deliverance from sickness is provided for in the atonement and is the privilege of all believers"), while other doctrines include the belief that baptism of the Holy Spirit will be evidenced by speaking in tongues, the misapplication of God's Word to a hyper- extended "believe it to receive it" premise that concludes by emphasising faith healing, slaying in the spirit, etc. A statement of faith and other resources are available

Ever Increasing Faith Ministries – © Ever Increasing Faith Ministries (Frederick K. C. Price). Word Faith. Doctrines emphasise tithing for financial and material prosperity, the belief that the Holy Spirit will be given to believers only upon request and evidence Himself by speaking in tongues, etc. Frederick Price also claims himself to be an apostle, and was "influenced by several books and tapes by Rev. Kenneth E. Hagin" (Biography). A statement of faith, vision statement, magazine archive and other resources are available

renamed Richard Roberts : Oral Roberts Ministries – © Oral Roberts Evangelistic Association. Word Faith. A statement of faith and mission statement are now available, as well as links to Miracles Magazine, teachings on healing Scriptures, salvation, and numerous other resources and media (including a point of contact prayer cloth)

updated Jerry Savelle International Ministries – © Jerry Savelle International Ministries. Word Faith. A statement of faith and other doctrinal writings are not available, but a mission statement, daily devotions and some other resources have been added

fixed link updated Success N Life – © Success N Life (Robert Tilton). Word Faith. Includes Robert Tilton Ministries and Robert Tilton Outreach. A statement of faith and other doctrinal writings are not available, but a mission statement and a featured weekly broadcast reflecting his doctrines are available. Doctrines include a misuse of God's Word to evidence a "believe it to receive it" doctrine that emphasises the idea that by investing in his ministry financially God must repay it with interest

updated World Impact Ministries – © World Impact Ministries (Peter Youngren). Word Faith. Doctrines include the belief that baptism of the Holy Spirit will be evidenced by speaking in tongues, a misuse of God's Word to evidence a "believe it to receive it" doctrine that emphasises miracles (esp. physical healings): "My experience … has been that a miracle settles the question of whether or not Jesus is the Son of God. Before non- Christian audiences around the world, the power demonstrations of God verify the teaching of the gospel. Miracles give authenticity to that claim that Jesus is God manifested in the flesh," and "I resolve … to actively believe for and pursue the miracles God has promised so that my life can be a channel by which people will find Christ" (Peter Youngren, "Where Are the Miracles?" Is Jesus Satisfied? A Missions Manifesto for the 21st Century, 39– 40, 42). A statement of faith is also available online

 
Unclassified
(not yet determined)


 
    


 
 
   
A note on colour schemes used here.

Some may wonder about the colour schemes that were first introduced in June 2006 and have been developing since then. In short, areas with

 blue background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively safe (orthodox) in content since they generally do not promote, advocate or defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous or heretical material (however, see disclaimer at top of this web page).

 red background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively dangerous (unorthodox) in content since they generally do promote, advocate and defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous and even heretical material. Included are resources from quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions, cults, agnosticism, atheism, philosophical religions, the occult and other (non- Christian) religions.


 purple background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively confused in content since they generally provide both safe (orthodox) and dangerous (unorthodox) material, but for whatever reason they do not make any distinction between them. (See disclaimer at top of page.) Included in this section are Bibles containing the Apocryphal (Deuterocanonical) writings.


Some may disagree with the colour schemes I have given to one or more resources, but that is to be expected. Also, for the sake of clarity, resources with blue backgrounds do not necessarily reflect my beliefs.


A quick guide to common graphics and their meaning.

new link – this is a newly added link

offlinethis link is active but its content is offline (see that website for more information)

dead linkthis link is no longer active or its content has been removed; if you find a link, please email it to me

link wanteda link could not be found with this content; if you find a link, please email it to me

fixed linkthe previous link to this content was broken (dead) but has been replaced with a link that works

updatedinformation about the content of this link has been updated

correctedinformation about the content of this link, section, or area was found to be in error and has been corrected

addedthis is a newly added section or area

modifiedinformation about this link, section or area has been modified (perhaps in an attempt to make it more clear)

renamed – the link remains the same, but the title (and perhaps the content) has been modified

archived – the original link is no longer active or its content has been removed, but has been replaced with a link to a backup copy (perhaps from a mirror site or the Internet Archive)

internal linkthis is an internal link (to something available on dialegomai)
  
 



Apologetics vs. Unbelief & Other Religions



Christian Apologetics
(addressing beliefs of non- Christian religions)

This section of "Christian Apologetics" includes links to resources or collections that address religions and their beliefs, creeds and doctrines that are not listed in the previous section (above), and that conservative Christian apologists consider to be problematic, erroneous, heretical, or otherwise non- Christian. Additional apologetic material may be found below under creeds or catechisms (left column), or under a specific denomination (right column). If you are searching for apologetic material regarding schisms, cults and common pseudo- Christian religions, links are available in the previous section (above).
    For an examination of the beliefs, creeds and doctrines of these religions, links may be available in the next section (below).

  

Agnosticism
(belief God cannot be known even if God exists)



link wanted


Atheism & New Atheism
(belief God does not exist)


link wanted


Darwinism & Neo- Darwinism
(belief in macro- evolution)



See under Creation & Science, et al. (below, in Apologetics vs. Unbelief & Other Religions section) …


Deism
(belief God is removed from creation)



vs. Thomas Jefferson link wanted

vs. Thomas Paine link wanted


Finite Godism
(belief God is finite in power or goodness)



vs. Peter Bertocci link wanted

vs. William James link wanted

vs. John Stuart Mill link wanted


Monotheism
(belief in only one true God)



Islam


fixed link Answering Islam – © Answering Islam. This website provides dozens of articles and resources that helps to inform and equip Christians for dialog with Muslims

new link Creed 2:6 – © ?

new link Muslim Hope – © Christian Debater. "If you are a Muslim you might question the need for such hope" (i.e. "of eternal life with God available to Muslims, when they leave Islam and turn to Jesus, our Messiah"). "[I]f you have never explored the problems, contradictions, and ungodly teaching in Islam. This web page is for you. You might have heard of problems Muslims have said they see in the Bible. This web site answers those. Dear Muslim reader, my prayer is that as you browse through the material on this site, that you would see Islam for what it really is, a corruption and counterfeit of truth, and the Bible for what it really is, the Word of God that He is able to preserve. My hope for you, dear Muslim, is that you will put your faith in Jesus for salvation. I hope that you and I will together please God as we dwell together in Heaven, saved through the precious blood of Jesus"

new link TheReligionofPeace.com – © TheReligionofPeace.com. This website "is a pluralistic, non- partisan site concerned with Islam's true political and religious teachings according to its own texts. We present the threat that Islam poses to human dignity and freedom, and document the violence that ensues as a direct consequence of this religion's supremacist teachings. We are not associated with any organization. We do not promote any religion, but we are not hostile to religion. We generally support the rights of atheists, Christians, Hindus, Jews, homosexuals, woman, Muslims and anyone else on the planet to live as they wish without violating the rights of others" (cf. About website). The resources on this website focus on the 'dark side' of Islam, its teachings and practices, both from the Qu'ran and from history (past and present). The information contained on this website can be used in dialogue with Muslims, but be mindful of liberal- minded Muslims who generally disagree with various teachings of the Qu'ran (and anyone who puts them into practice)

fixed link Answering Muslims – © Acts17 Apologetics. "On this website, we engage Muslims and the foundations of Islam without trying to be 'PC'. We feel honesty is better than disguised language. As you can read on our FAQ, this is out of love, not out of hatred. Thanks, and we're looking forward to seeing your comments!" This blog is awkward to describe. On the positive side, it provides some useful information and external videos; on the negative side, their methods for evangelism and defending the Christian faith (even as seen in some internal videos) seem to cause more harm than good (i.e. by going into sensitive situations and being intentionally controversial, provocative, et al.)

updated Aramaic Broadcasting Network (ABN) – "ABN is a non- denominational ministry committed to presenting the Word of God and its transforming message of Jesus Christ to Arabic and Aramaic speaking people worldwide through media"


Judaism


new link Jews for Jesus – © Jews for Jesus


Panentheism
(belief God is in all)


vs. Shubert Ogden link wanted

vs. Charles Hartshorne link wanted

vs. Alfred North Whitehead link wanted


Pantheism

(belief God is all and all is God)


Divine Light Mission


link wanted


Hare Krishna


link wanted


Hinduism


link wanted


New Age Movement


link wanted


Transcendental Meditation


link wanted


Vedanta Society


link wanted


Wicca
(neo- paganism)


link wanted


Zen Buddhism


link wanted


Polytheism
(belief in two or more true gods)


Ancient Egyptian


link wanted


Ancient Greek


link wanted


Confucianism


link wanted


Hinduism


See under Pantheism (above) …


Jainism


link wanted


Satanism


link wanted


Scientology
(not Christian Science)


Operation Clambake: The Inner Secrets of Scientology – "the fight against the Church of Scientology on the Net"


Shinto


link wanted


Taoism


link wanted


Vedanta Society


See under Pantheism (above) …


Wicca
(neo- paganism)



See under Pantheism (above) …


Zoroastrianism
(aka Parsiism)


link wanted


Unclassified
(not yet determined)


   

Creation & Science, et al.
  (Intelligent Design and Creationism)

When examining the biological and biochemical details of life, as well as the fossil evidences of palaeontology, the layers of strata in geology and scientific data from other fields of science, there are at least three ways one can examine and evaluate it:
   One is to presume (a priori) that there is no creator and everything in nature is the product of micro- and macro- evolution. This is known as Darwinism or Neo- Darwinism, and is a form of naturalistic science (sometimes called secular science, since it is taught in public schools). Its primary advocates are Atheists and New Atheists, but also includes mostly nominal (e.g., titular) or liberal Christians, Jews, Muslims, and people who are generally from other religious beliefs. The weakness of this method is that it is generally subjective rather than objective. If scientific data suggests intelligent design or a creator- God, then these possibilities are (a priori) rejected and claimed to be the result of natural selection. Another weakness is that no distinction is made between micro- evolution (which is observable and empirical) and macro- evolution (which is not observable and not empirical, but presumed).
   Another way is to presume (a priori) that there is a creator of some kind and that everything in nature is the product of creation and micro- evolution. This is known as Creation Science or Creationism. Its primary advocates are fundamentalist Christians, but also includes some other conservative Christians, Jews and Muslims. Unlike the previous method, a distinction is made between micro- evolution and macro- evolution. The weakness of this method is that it is generally subjective rather than objective. If scientific data suggests macro- evolution, then this possibility is (a priori) rejected and claimed to be the result of a Creator- God.
   A third way is to presume (a priori) that there may or may not be a creator (or intelligent designer) of some kind, and that things in nature may be the product of micro- evolution, macro- evolution, or intelligent design (depending on what the evidence suggests is the best conclusion). This is known as The Wedge or Intelligent Design, and its methodology to evaluate the evidence is similar to forensic science. Its primary advocates are conservative Christians, Jews and Muslims, but also includes several Deists, Agnostics, people from other religious beliefs and some atheists. This method recognises a distinction between micro- evolution and macro- evolution; it also attempts to evaluate the scientific data objectively rather than subjectively.

   This section addresses Creationism and Intelligent Design. It is worth mentioning that in spite of the weakness of Creationism, it does offer sseveral fascinating and noteworthy considerations that Intelligent Design does not address. Some of these are addressed under Fossils & Living Fossils and Interesting Finds (right column, in the Archæology section). Links to Atheism and Darwinism are available in Creation & Science, et al. (right column, under Other Side of the Fence section)
  

  
Intelligent Design
(aka ID; originally called The Wedge)


Access Research Network (ARN) – Intelligent Design. "A non- profit organization dedicated to providing accessible information on science, technology and society. We focus on such controversial topics as genetic engineering, euthanasia, computer technology, environmental issues, creation / evolution, fetal tissue research, AIDS, and so on. Through our publications and product offers, we give you the information you need to orient yourself in today's scientific and technological world and make informed decisions"

Design Inference Website – © William A. Dembski. Intelligent Design. The writings of William A. Dembski

Intelligent Design Undergraduate Research Center – Intelligent Design. A "student organization dedicated to: 1) investigating intelligent design as a viable scientific theory; 2) promoting education and critical thinking about neo- Darwinism; 3) supporting efforts of those trying to revise school standards to include discussion of the controversy surrounding evolutionary theory; 4) providing a forum for high school and college students to present, debate, and discuss their ideas about intelligent design and neo- Darwinism; 5) clarifying the debate concerning neo- Darwinism, intelligent design, and creationism; 6) encouraging creative exploration of the aesthetic dimensions of design"

The International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design (ISCID) – Intelligent Design. A "cross- disciplinary professional society that investigates complex systems apart from external programmatic constraints like materialism, naturalism, or reductionism. The society provides a forum for formulating, testing, and disseminating research on complex systems through critique, peer review, and publication. Its aim is to pursue the theoretical development, empirical application, and philosophical implications of information- and design- theoretic concepts for complex systems"

Intelligent Design the Future – Intelligent Design. "Exploring issues central to the case for intelligent design, from the Big Bang to the bacterial flagellum and beyond"

Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness Center (IDEA) – Intelligent Design. A "non- profit organization dedicated to promoting intelligent design theory and fostering good- spirited discussion and a better understanding over intelligent design theory and the creation- evolution issue among students, educators, churches, and anyone else interested"

Intelligent Design Network – Intelligent Design. "A nonprofit organization that seeks institutional objectivity in origins science. Objectivity results from the use of the scientific method without philosophic or religious assumptions in seeking answers to the question: Where do we come from? We believe objectivity in the institutions of science, government and the media will lead not only to good origins science, but also to constitutional neutrality in this subjective, historical science that unavoidably impacts religion. We promote the scientific evidence of intelligent design because proper consideration of that evidence is necessary to achieve not only scientific objectivity but also constitutional neutrality"
  

Book Resources
(Intelligent Design)


I Don't Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist – © 2004 Norman L. Geisler and Frank Turek (Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books). The first seven chapters of this book address matters relevant to science and are presented in a manner that reflects intelligent design (as explained above). It contains updated information and explanations that are very well organised, reasoned, and are written in a manner that is relatively easy to follow. Chapter eight and the remaining chapters lead the reader into a Christian Apologetic based on further considerations and evidences, both from within and without Holy Scriptures


Media Resources
(Intelligent Design)


new link The Case for a Creator – © Lee Strobel. Also available on YouTube

fixed link Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed – © Ben Stein. Also available on YouTube


Creation Science
(aka Creationism)


Institute of Creation Research (ICR) – Creation Science. "We believe God has raised up ICR to spearhead Biblical Christianity's defense against the godless and compromising dogma of evolutionary humanism. Only by showing the scientific bankruptcy of evolution, while exalting Christ and the Bible, will Christians be successful in 'the pulling down of strongholds; casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ' (II Corinthians 10:4, 5)"

Answers in Genesis (AiG) – Creation Science. "An apologetics (i.e., Christianity- defending) ministry, dedicated to enabling Christians to defend their faith, and to proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ effectively. We focus particularly on providing answers to questions surrounding the book of Genesis, as it is the most- attacked book of the Bible. We also desire to train others to develop a biblical worldview, and seek to expose the bankruptcy of evolutionary ideas, and its bedfellow, a 'millions of years old' earth (and even older universe)"

Creation Ministries International (CMI) – Creation Science. "We provide real- world answers to the most- asked questions in the vital area of creation / evolution, where the Bible is most under attack today— Genesis"

updated Creation Truth MinistriesCreation Science. It is "dedicated to defending the authority of the Bible starting in Genesis. Creation Truth Ministries is a Christian ministry that seeks to enable believers to defend their faith in an increasingly secular age." Includes sections (with photos) on their travelling museum exhibits, answers to some challenges and questions, and some other sections

Article Archive – Creation Science and Intelligent Design. Numerous articles covering a wide variety of subjects by several authors (including scientists from various fields) who are advocates of either Intelligent Design or Creation Science. Available from Twin Cities Creation Science Association

archived CreationDigest.com – Creation Science. "This site articulates the worldview that life exists as a result of 'intelligent design' put in place by the miraculous power of an all- powerful, all- loving, all- wise God— the Designer and Creator of life and the author of all true science." A backup copy (11 June 2008) is available on Internet Archive
  

Book Resources
(Creation Science)


new link Refuting Evolution 2 – © 2010 Jonathan Sarfati (Australia: Creation Ministries International). "Respected CMI scientist Dr Jonathan Sarfati, author of the best- seller Refuting Evolution, has written a sequel that comprehensively refutes arguments to support evolution (as presented in TV documentaries and Scientific American). Read world- leading evolutionists in their own words, and then find straightforward answers from science and the Bible. Refuting Evolution 2 will prepare you to answer the best arguments thrown at you by peers, teachers, neighbours and sceptics." An updated edition (2011) is also available

fixed link Refuting Evolution – © 2007 Jonathan Sarfati (Australia: Creation Ministries International). "Refuting Evolution is a hard- hitting critique of the most up- to- date arguments for evolution, to challenge educators, students and parents. It is a powerful, yet concise summary of the arguments against evolution and for creation. It will stimulate much discussion and help students and teachers think more critically about origins. This top- selling book has over 450,000 copies in print." Also available online with study guide

fixed link updated Refuting Compromise – © 2004, 2011 Jonathan Sarfati (Green Forest, Ark.: Master Books). "With his usual brilliant clarity, Jonathan Sarfati, author of the best- selling Refuting Evolution (Vols. 1 and 2) has produced a comprehensive and resounding refutation of the position of 'progressive creationist' Hugh Ross, whose views are causing massive confusion about science and the Bible. The most powerful and scientific defence of a straightforward view of Genesis creation ever written." Updated and expanded (2011)

new link Thousands … Not Billions – © Don DeYoung. "Radiometric dating is one of the linchpins of evolutionary education today. Dr. Don DeYoung shatters this and other dating methods employed by evolutionists to cast doubt on the reliability of the Bible and its chronology of Earth history. Evolutionists seek to undermine faith in Genesis as the true documentary of the history of the universe. When people are told that a dinosaur bone has been determined to be tens of millions of years old, that obviously doesn't square with the biblical record of man being created on Day 6 with the land animals. But Dr. DeYoung now demonstrates that Christians no longer have to puzzle over this glaring contradiction"


Media Resources
(Creation Science)


link wanted


Undetermined
(may reflect intelligent design, creation science, both, or neither)


Other Articles by Jonathan Wells – Undetermined. A collection of articles for various publications by Jonathan Wells. Available from Icons of Evolution

Center for Science and Culture – Undetermined. "A Discovery Institute program which: *supports research by scientists and other scholars challenging various aspects of neo- Darwinian theory; *supports research by scientists and other scholars developing the scientific theory known as intelligent design; *supports research by scientists and scholars in the social sciences and humanities exploring the impact of scientific materialism on culture; *encourages schools to improve science education by teaching students more fully about the theory of evolution, including the theory's scientific weaknesses as well is its strengths"

Origins – Undetermined. "Features scholarly and popular resources concerning intelligent design and philosophical theism"

The True.Origin Archive – Undetermined. "The TrueOrigin Archive comprises an intellectually honest  response to what in fairness can only be described as evolutionism— the doctrine of strict philosophical naturalism as a necessary presupposition in matters of science history (i.e., origins). … The question of origins is plainly a matter of science history— not the domain of applied science. Contrary to the unilateral denials of many evolutionists, one's worldview does indeed play heavily on one's interpretation of scientific data, a phenomenon that is magnified in matters concerning origins, where neither repeatability, nor observation, nor measurement— the three immutable elements of the scientific method— may be employed. Many proponents of evolutionism nevertheless persist in claiming exclusive 'scientific' status for their popularized beliefs, while heaping out- of- hand dismissal and derision upon all doubters, spurning the very advice of Darwin himself"

new link archived Apologetics Press: Creation vs Evolution – Undetermined. An informative apologetics website containing numerous articles covering a wide variety of subjects including everything from the historicity of Scripture to scientific matters. A backup copy of the Examine the Evidence multimedia section (19 Nov 2010) is available on Internet Archive. Available from Apologetics Press


Book Resources


Not By Chance – © 1998 Lee M. Spetner (Judaica Press)


Media Resources


Icons in Evolution – © 2002 (Randolf Productions)


Darwinism & Neo- Darwinism
(belief in macro- evolution)


See under Creation and Science, et al. (right column, in the Other Side of the Fence: Unbelief & Other Religions section) …
 
   


Other Side of the Fence



Unbelief and Other Religions
(beliefs of non- Christian religions)

"Other Side of the Fence" is divided into two areas. The first area provides resources from quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions (including cults and certain schisms of Christianity), which contain problematic, erroneous and even heretical beliefs, creeds (confessions of faith), doctrines (teachings) and / or practices from a conservative Christian perspective. The second area provides resources from non- Christian religions. Granted, members or advocates of any of the quasi-, pseudo-, or non- Christian religions listed below may view conservative Christianity as being on the "other side of the fence."
   Regardless, it is encouraged that everyone read the following document (which I think is valuable to consider, regardless of your background) before venturing on to examine the links provided in this section (or any section, for that matter). The short film is also useful, but certain points are so vague that they overlap into authentic Christianity (e.g., guilt from sin: While guilt should accompany and follow sin, many quasi-, pseudo- and non- Christian religions use guilt as a means of control— like when they demand so many hours, repetitions or acts of 'good works' to either 'atone' for sin or 'prove' genuine repentance, etc.; however, this distinction isn't made clear in the film).

 

Recommended


Are you the Victim of Mind Control?
– © 2003 Spotlight Ministries, Vincent McCann. "The purpose of this article is to give you the chance to test yourself to see if you are the victim of well known manipulative mind control techniques." This article also helps readers recognise "well known manipulative mind control techniques" so they can avoid being deceived by them

Mind Control Made Easy: How to Become a Cult Leader – © Free Minds, Inc. A short 12½ minute film that demonstrates some mind control and peer pressure techniques normally (but not exclusively) used by cults. Available only in RAM format from RandyTV.com

 
Non- Christian Religions


Agnosticism
(belief God cannot be known even if God exists)


link wanted


Atheism & New Atheism
(belief God does not exist)


See under Creation & Science, et al. (below, in Other Side of the Fence section) …


Darwinism & Neo- Darwinism
(belief in macro- evolution)


See under Creation & Science, et al. (below, in Other Side of the Fence section) …


Deism
(belief God is removed from creation)


link wanted


Finite Godism
(belief God is finite in power or goodness)


link wanted


Monotheism
(belief in only one true God)


Islam


Qur'an – © Quran.com. "The goal of this website is to make easily available, the Holy Qur'an text in many languages with features that allow users to browse verses, search and listen to recitations of the glorious Qur'an in an easy-to-use interface"

Quran Explorer – © Quran Explorer Inc. "Our goal is to spread the message of the Holy Quran to all mankind (Muslims and non-Muslims) throughout this world free of cost. Furthermore, we want to advocate peace and tranquility by making people cognizant of the true message of Islam"


Judaism

 
Navigating the Bible II (The Torah) – MT. Online bar / bat mitzvah tutor: Study (with optional audio) translation, Torah, Haftarot, Brachot, Divrei Torah. Several other tools are also available through this awesome resource

new link Judaism 101 – Judaism. "Judaism 101 is an online encyclopedia of Judaism, covering Jewish beliefs, people, places, things, language, scripture, holidays, practices and customs. My goal is to make freely available a wide variety of basic, general information about Judaism, written from a traditional perspective in plain English. This web site has grown continually for more than 10 years and continues to be updated periodically. The information in this site is written predominantly from the Orthodox viewpoint, because I believe that is a good starting point for any inquiry into Judaism. As recently as 300 years ago, this was the only Judaism, and it still is the only Judaism in many parts of the world. Be aware, however, that many Jews do not follow all of the traditions described here, or do not follow them in the precise form described here. The Conservative movement believes that these laws and traditions can change to suit the times, and Reform / Liberal / Progressive movements believe that individuals can make choices about what traditions to follow. However, what I present here is the starting point, the traditions that are being changed or chosen. On some pages, I have identified variations in practice or belief in other movements"

fixed link Works of Flavius Josephus – Judaism. Includes Antiquities of the Jews, War of the Jews, Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades, Against Apion, and the Life of Flavius Josephus. Available from Wesley Center Online
  

Jewish Encyclopedia – © 1901– 1906. Judaism. "This online version contains the unedited contents of the original encyclopedia. Since the original work was completed almost 100 years ago, it does not cover a significant portion of modern Jewish History (e.g., the creation of Israel, the Holocaust, etc.). However, it does contain an incredible amount of information that is remarkably relevant today"

Babylonian Talmud – Judaism. Includes a readable scanned image of each page (in Hebrew) and an audio commentary, which is available in English (includes Hebrew which is then translated and explained), Ou and Yiddish. Each audio commentary is available in several audio formats (MP3 / WMA / RA). Also includes some other useful links. Available from E-DAF.com

fixed link Jews for Judaism – Judaism. This is "an international organization that provides a wide variety of counseling services, along with education, and outreach programs that enable Jews of all ages to rediscover and strengthen their Jewish heritage." It is primarily a response designed to reach "out to individuals who have been lured away from Judaism by other belief systems or through assimilation" by "cults and evangelical Christians who target Jews for conversion"


Panentheism
(belief God is in all)


link wanted


Pantheism
(belief God is all and all is God)


Hinduism


Divine Life Church of Absolute Oneness – © Miro International Pty Ltd. "Absolute Monism (Advaita Vedanta) means absolute oneness with God. It teaches the underlying harmony and essential oneness of all life and all religions; it emphasizes how to achieve the realization of oneness. … The Divine Life Church of Absolute Oneness is a nonsectarian, autonomous spiritual organization that upholds the principles and philosophy of Absolute Oneness, or Advaita Vedanta"


Polytheism
(belief in two or more gods)


Scientology
(not Christian Science)



Official Church of Scientology – "Scientology follows a long tradition of religious practice. Its roots lie in the deepest beliefs and aspirations of all great religions, thus encompassing a religious heritage as old and as varied as man himself. Though drawing upon the wisdom of some 50,000 years, Scientology is a new religion, one which has isolated fundamental laws of life and, for the first time, developed a workable technology that can be applied to help one achieve a happier and more spiritual existence. Scientology is therefore something one does, not merely something one believes in." More information is available in their section on What is Scientology?
 

Unclassified
(not yet determined)


Religious Tolerance – © Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. "This website is unlike almost all other religious sites: It promotes religious freedom, and diversity as positive cultural values. We do not promote our own religious beliefs. We can't because we are a multi- faith group. We try to explain the full diversity of religious belief in North America, from Asatru to Zoroastrianism, including Christianity, Hinduism, Wicca and others. We try to describe all viewpoints on controversial religious topics objectively and fairly. We cover everything from abortion access to equal rights and protections for homosexuals and bisexuals, including same- sex marriage, and dozens of other 'hot' topics"
  

Creation & Science, et al.
(Darwinism & Neo- Darwinism)

When examining the biological and biochemical details of life, as well as the fossil evidences of palaeontology, the layers of strata in geology and scientific data from other fields of science, there are at least three ways one can examine and evaluate it:
   One is to presume (a priori) that there is no creator and everything in nature is the product of micro- and macro- evolution. This is known as Darwinism or Neo- Darwinism, and is a form of naturalistic science (sometimes called secular science, since it is taught in public schools). Its primary advocates are Atheists and New Atheists, but also includes mostly nominal (e.g., titular) or liberal Christians, Jews, Muslims, and people who are generally from other religious beliefs. The weakness of this method is that it is generally subjective rather than objective. If scientific data suggests intelligent design or a creator- God, then these possibilities are (a priori) rejected and claimed to be the result of natural selection. Another weakness is that no distinction is made between micro- evolution (which is observable and empirical) and macro- evolution (which is not observable and not empirical, but presumed).
   Another way is to presume (a priori) that there is a creator of some kind and that everything in nature is the product of creation and micro- evolution. This is known as Creation Science or Creationism. Its primary advocates are fundamentalist Christians, but also includes some other conservative Christians, Jews and Muslims. Unlike the previous method, a distinction is made between micro- evolution and macro- evolution. The weakness of this method is that it is generally subjective rather than objective. If scientific data suggests macro- evolution, then this possibility is (a priori) rejected and claimed to be the result of a Creator- God.
   A third way is to presume (a priori) that there may or may not be a creator (or intelligent designer) of some kind, and that things in nature may be the product of micro- evolution, macro- evolution, or intelligent design (depending on what the evidence suggests is the best conclusion). This is known as The Wedge or Intelligent Design, and its methodology to evaluate the evidence is similar to forensic science. Its primary advocates are conservative Christians, Jews and Muslims, but also includes several Deists, Agnostics, people from other religious beliefs and some atheists. This method recognises a distinction between micro- evolution and macro- evolution; it also attempts to evaluate the scientific data objectively rather than subjectively.

   This section addresses Darwinism and Neo- Darwinism. Attempts to find links for naturalistic science (without Atheist or New Atheist religious agendas) have more or less failed, therefore I have decided to place all links to Atheism and New Atheism in this section. Links to Creationism and Intelligent Design are available under Creation & Science, et al. (left column, in Apologetics vs. Unbelief & Other Religions section)
  

Atheism & New Atheism
(belief God does not exist)


American Atheists – © American Atheists

American Humanist Association – © American Humanist Association

Atheist Alliance International – © Athiest Alliance International

British Humanist Society – © British Humanist Society

Freedom from Religion Foundation – © Freedom from Religion Foundation

The Secular Web – © Internet Infidels

Rationalist International – © Rationalist International

The Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science – © The Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science


Book Resources
(Atheism & New Atheism)


link wanted


Darwinism & Neo- Darwinism
(belief in macro- evolution)


link wanted


Book Resources
(Atheism & New Atheism)


link wanted
 
    


 
 
     
A note on colour schemes used here.

Some may wonder about the colour schemes that were first introduced in June 2006 and have been developing since then. In short, areas with

 blue background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively safe (orthodox) in content since they generally do not promote, advocate, or defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous or heretical material (however, see disclaimer at top of this web page).

 red background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively dangerous (unorthodox) in content since they generally do promote, advocate and defend significantly questionable, problematic, erroneous and even heretical material. Included are resources from quasi- and pseudo- Christian religions, cults, agnosticism, atheism, philosophical religions, the occult and other (non- Christian) religions.


 purple background  contain links to material that can be considered relatively confused in content since they generally provide both safe (orthodox) and dangerous (unorthodox) material, but for whatever reason they do not make any distinction between them. (See disclaimer at top of page.) Included in this section are Bibles containing the Apocryphal (Deuterocanonical) writings.


Some may disagree with the colour schemes I have given to one or more resources, but that is to be expected. Also, for the sake of clarity, resources with blue backgrounds do not necessarily reflect my beliefs.


A quick guide to common graphics and their meaning.

new link – this is a newly added link

offlinethis link is active but its content is offline (see that website for more information)

dead linkthis link is no longer active or its content has been removed; if you find a link, please email it to me

link wanteda link could not be found with this content; if you find a link, please email it to me

fixed linkthe previous link to this content was broken (dead) but has been replaced with a link that works

updatedinformation about the content of this link has been updated

correctedinformation about the content of this link, section, or area was found to be in error and has been corrected

addedthis is a newly added section or area

modifiedinformation about this link, section or area has been modified (perhaps with something more clear, or in an attempt to make something easier to understand)

renamed – the link remains the same, but the title (and perhaps the content) has been modified

archived – the original link is no longer active or its content has been removed, but has been replaced with a link to a backup copy (perhaps from a mirror site or the Internet Archive)

internal linkthis is an internal link (to something available on dialegomai)
  
 
  



Councils, Canons & Statements of Faith



Councils, Canons & Statements of Faith
(organised by date)

This section offers links to various church councils, canons and statements of faith. While many Christian denominations claim that they do not hold to any creeds, their claims are false because the term 'creed' comes from the Latin word 'credo', which means "I believe." In other words, a creed is a confession of common beliefs, and all Christian denominations, pseudo- and quasi- Christian religions, schisms, sects, cults, and all other religions of the world (including atheism and new atheism) hold to a common set of beliefs which they may openly confess.
   All of the dates listed below are Anno Domini (A.D.), i.e., from the Common Era (C.E.). Due to their clarity (and to avoid garble from incompatible fonts), I highly recommend that you download and install the Greek font GentiumAlt. Note: You may need to close your browser or reboot your computer for these fonts to take effect.


Christianity Outlawed & Persecuted
in Roman Empire; no longer seen as sect of Judaism
(ca. 70– 312)


Apostles' Creed (2nd– 3rd century) – ecumenical (i.e., recognised universally, by both the Eastern and Western Churches). This confession of faith is connected with Holy Baptism, both in the act of being baptised and in remembering one's baptism:

Formula Marcelli Ancryani
about A.D. 340


Πιστεύω εἰς θεὸν παντοκράτορα.
   Καὶ εἰς Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν, τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ τὸν μονογενῆ, τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν, τὸν γεννηθέντα ἐκ Πνεύματος ἁγίου καὶ Μαρίας τῆς παρθένου, τὸν ἐπὶ Ποντίου Πιλάτου σταυρωθέντα καὶ ταφέντα, καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἀναστάντα ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, ἀναβάντα εἰς τοὺς οὐρανοὺς, καὶ καθήμενον ἐν δεξιᾷ τοῦ πατρὸς, ὃθεν εῤχεται κρίνειν ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς.
   Καὶ εἰς Ἅγιον Πνεῦμα, ἁγίαν ἐκκλησίαν, ἀφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν, σαρκὸς ἀνάστασιν, [ζωὴν αἰώνιον].

Philip Schaff, "Chapter XII: The Development of Catholic Theology in Conflict with Heresy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed.; vol. 2 in History of the Christian Church; 1858; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 535 §141


Formula Romana
from the 3rd or 4th century


Credo in DEUM PATREM omnipotentem.
   Et in CHRISTUM JESUM, Filium ejus unicum, Dominum nostrum; qui natus est de Spiritu Sancto et Maria Virgine; cruicifixus est sub Pontio Pilato, et sepultus; tertia die resurrexit a mortuis; ascendit in cœlos; sedet ad dexteram Patris; inde venturus judicare vivos et mortuos.
   Et in SPIRITUM SANCTUM; Sanctam Ecclesiam; remissionem peccatorum; carnis resurrectionem.


Philip Schaff, "Chapter XII: The Development of Catholic Theology in Conflict with Heresy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed.; vol. 2 in History of the Christian Church; 1858; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 535 §141


The Received Text
since the 6th or 7th century



I believe in GOD THE FATHER Almighty, [Maker of heaven and earth].
   And in JESUS CHRIST, his only begotten Son, our Lord; who was [conceived] by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary; [suffered] under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, [dead], and buried. [He descended into Hades]; the third day He rose from the dead; He ascended into heaven; and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father [Almighty]; from thence He shall come to judge the quick and the dead.
   [I believe] in the HOLY GHOST; the holy [catholic] church, [the communion of saints]; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body; [and the life everlasting. Amen].

Philip Schaff, "Chapter XII: The Development of Catholic Theology in Conflict with Heresy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed.; vol. 2 in History of the Christian Church; 1858; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 535 §141



The Apostles' Creed


I believe in God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth.
   And in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died and was buried. He descended into hell. The third day He rose again from the dead. He ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty. From thence He will come to judge the living and the dead.
   I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy Christian Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.

Paul Timothy McCain, Edward Andrew Engelbrecht, Robert Cleveland Baker, and Gene Edward Veith, eds., Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions (2nd ed.; revised, updated and annotated based on the translation by William Hermann Theodore Dau and Gerhard Friedrich Bente; St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 2006), 16


   
fixed link More information on the Apostles' Creed is available from Christian Cyclopedia. For background information on the Apostles' Creed and creeds before it, see Philip Schaff, "The Rule of Faith and the Apostles' Creed," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed.; vol. 2 in History of the Christian Church; 1858; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 528– 534 §140. Additional information on the Old Roman, Gallican (6th century) and modern editions of the Apostles' Creed along with Scripture references are available on Believe: Religious Information Source

Canons of the Seven Ecumenical Councils – includes documents of all seven ecumenical councils accepted by the Eastern & Western Churches, and also includes the Quinisext Council (see below) which is accepted only by the Eastern Church

fixed link Church Councils – includes links to documents of all seven ecumenical councils accepted by the Western & Eastern Churches, the other eleven councils accepted by Roman Catholicism, and some additional councils. Available on the Internet Midieval Sourcebook

fixed link Council of Carthage held under Cyprian (257) – mentioned by name by the Quinisext Council in Trullo and said to be accepted by the Church catholic. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 515– 519. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library


Christianity Legalised
under Constantine the Great
(ca. 313)


fixed link Council of Ancyra (ca. 314) – addresses Christians who, for various reasons, rejected or denied the faith in times of persecution (offering sacrifices to idols and pagan gods, etc.), but later repented and returned to the Christian faith after persecution had ended. Also addresses those guilty of bestial lusts, digamy, adultery, fornication, abortion, murder, homicide, divination, etc. The canons of this council were ambiguously acknowledged by the Fourth Ecumenical Council in Chalcedon, but clearly reaffirmed by the Quinisext Council in Trullo. An excursus on digamy is also available. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 61– 75. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library

fixed link Council of Neocæsaea (ca. 315) – deals with several scenerios involving marriage, catechumens who sin, laymen or ordained ministers who have an adulterous wife, church workers guilty of a carnal sin, some scenarios involving baptism, the minimun age for ordination, etc. The canons of this council were ambiguously acknowledged by the Fourth Ecumenical Council in Chalcedon, but clearly reaffirmed by the Quinisext Council in Trullo. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 77– 86. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library
 
fixed link Council of Nicæa (325) First Ecumenical Council. Addressed and condemned Arius and his doctrines (which includes his assertion that Jesus was a created being who is of a similar substance [homoiousion] rather than of the same substance [homoousion] with God the Father). The original Nicene Creed was recorded and recognised by both the Eastern and Western Churches:

The Nicene Creed of 325


Πιστεύομεν εἰς ἕνα Θεὸν, πατέρα παντοκράτορα, πάντων ὁρατῶν τε καὶ ἀοράτων ποιητήν.
   Καὶ εἰς ἕνα κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν, τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ‧ γεννηθέντα ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς [μονογενῆ‧ τοῦτ᾿ ἔστιν ἐκ τῆς οὐσίας τοῦ πατρὸς‧ Θεὸν ἐκ Θεοῦ καὶ] φῶς ἐκ φωτὸς, Θεὸν ἀληθινὸν ἐκ Θεοῦ ἀληθινοῦ‧ γεννηθέντα, οὐ ποιηθέντα, ὁμοούσιον τῷ πατρί‧ δι᾿ οὗ τὰ πάντα ἐγένετο [τά τε ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ καὶ τὰ ἐν τῇ γῇ‧] τὸν δι᾿ ἡμᾶς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους καὶ διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηρίαν κατελθόντα καὶ σαρκωθέντα, καὶ ἐνανθρωπήσαντα‧ παθόντα καὶ ἀναστάντα τῇ τρίτῇ ἡμέρᾳ, ἀνελθόντα εἰς τοὺς οὐρανοὺς, ἐρχόμενον κρίναι ζῶντας καὶ νεκροὺς.
   Καὶ εἰς τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα.
   [Τοὺς δὲ λέγοντας, ὅτι ἦν ποτε ὅτε οὐκ ἦν‧ καὶ‧ πρὶν γεννηθῆναι οὐκ ἦν‧ καὶ ὅτι ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων ἐγένετο‧ ἢ ἐξ ἑτέρας ὐποστάσεως ἢ οὐσίας φάσκοντας εἶναι‧ ἢ κτιστὸν, ἢ τρεπτὸν, ἢ ἀλλοιωτὸν τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ‧ ἀναθεματίζει ἡ ἁγία καθολικὴ καὶ ἀποστολικὴ ἐκκλησία.

Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 667– 668 §129;
cf. Rodney J. Decker, Greek Creeds: Nicene, Chalcedonian, (PDF, 2004)


 
The Nicene Creed


Credimus in unum deum patrem omnipotentem visibilium et invisibilium factorem. Et in unum dominum Iesum Christum filium dei, natum de patre, hoc est de substantia patris, deum de deo, lumen de lumine, deum verum de deo vero, natum non factum, unius substantiae cum patre, quod Graeci dicunt homousion, per quem omnia facta sunt sive quae in caelo sive in terra; qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit, incarnatus est, homo factus est, passus est et resurrexit tertia die, ascendit in caelos venturus iudicare vivos et mortuos. Et in spiritum sanctum.
   Eos autem qui dicunt: erat quando non erat, et: priusquam nasceretur non erat, et quia ex nullis extantibus factus est, quod Graeci exuconton dicunt, vel alia substantia, dicentes mutabilem et convertibilem filium dei, hos anathenatiat catholica et apostolica ecclesia.


Jaroslav Pelikan and Valerie Hotchkiss, eds., Early, Eastern, & Midieval (vol 1 of Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition; New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 158

   
The Nicene Creed of 325


"We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things visible and invisible.
   "And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father [the only- begotten, i.e., of the essence of the Father, God of God, and] Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made [in heaven and in earth]; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down and was incarnate and was made man; he suffered, and the third day he rose again, ascended into heaven; from thence he cometh to judge the quick and the dead.
   "And in the Holy Ghost.
   ["And those who say: there was a time when he was not; and: he was not before he was made; and: he was made out of nothing, or out of another substance or thing, or the Son of God is created, or changeable, or alterable;— they are condemned by the holy catholic and apostolic church.]"


Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 668– 669 §129;
cf. Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 3


 
fixed link See an article on the Nicene Creed from Christian Cyclopedia for more information. For background information on the Nicene Creed, see Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 618– 632 §§119– 120. Cf. Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 1– 56. To examine several key words that were used in the Greek and their meaning, see Rodney J. Decker, Greek Creeds: Nicene, Chalcedonian (PDF, 2004)
 
fixed link Council of Gangra (ca. 325– 381) – the canons of this council were ambiguously acknowledged by the Fourth Ecumenical Council in Chalcedon, but clearly reaffirmed by the Quinisext Council in Trullo. A synodical letter from this council is also available. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 87– 101. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library

fixed link Synod of Antoich in Encæniis (ca. 341) – the canons of this council were ambiguously acknowledged by the Fourth Ecumenical Council in Chalcedon, but clearly reaffirmed by the Quinisext Council in Trullo. A synodical letter from this council is also available. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 103– 121. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library

fixed link Council of Sardica (343 or 344) – mentioned by name by the Quinisext Council in Trullo and said to be accepted by the Church catholic. Other acts of this council and excursus as to whether this council was ecumenical are also available. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 411– 436. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library

fixed link Synod of Laodicea (ca. 343– 381) – the canons of this council were ambiguously acknowledged by the Fourth Ecumenical Council in Chalcedon, but clearly reaffirmed by the Quinisext Council in Trullo. An excursus on the choir offices, worship, vestments, and the minor orders of the early church are also available. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 123– 160. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library

fixed link First Council of Constantinople (381) Second Ecumenical Council. Addressed and condemned Macedonius and his doctrines (which rejected and opposed the divinity of the Holy Spirit). The conclusions of Nicæa were reaffirmed, the Nicene Creed was expanded on the subject of the Holy Spirit (this creed is thus known, technically, as the "Niceno- Constantinopolitan Creed"), and except for the filioque clause (see below) is recognised as ecumenical

The Nicæno- Constantinopolitan Creed of 381


Πιστεύομεν εἰς ἕνα Θεὸν, πατέρα παντοκράτορα, ποιητὴν οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς, ὁρατῶν τε πάντων καὶ ἀοράτων.
   Καὶ εἰς ἕνα κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ τὸν μονογενῆ‧ τὸν ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς γεννηθέντα πρὸ πάντων τῶν αἰώνων‧ φῶς ἐκ φωτὸς, Θεὸν ἀληθινὸν ἐκ Θεοῦ ἀληθινοῦ, γεννηθέντα, οὐ ποιηθέντα, ὁμοούσιον τῷ πατρὶ‧ δι᾿ οὗ τὰ πάντα ἐγένετο‧ τὸν δι᾿ ἡμᾶς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους καὶ διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηρίαν κατελθόντα ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν, καὶ σαρκωθέντα ἐκ πνεύματος ἁγίου καὶ Μαρίας τῆς παρθένου, καὶ ἐνανθρωπήσαντα‧ σταυρωθέντα τε ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἐπὶ Ποντίου Πιλάτου, καὶ παθόντα, καὶ ταφέντα, καὶ ἀναστάντα τῇ τρίτῇ ἡμέρᾳ κατὰ τὰς γραφὰς, καὶ ἀνελθόντα εἰς τοὺς οὐρανοὺς, καὶ καθεζόμενον ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ πατρὸς, καὶ πάλιν ἐρχόμενον μετὰ δόξης κρίναι ζῶντας καὶ νεκροὺς‧ οὗ τῆς βασιλείας οὐκ ἔσται τέλος.
      Καὶ εἰς τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, τὸ κύριον, τὸ ζωοποιὸν, τὸ ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκπορευόμενον, τὸ σὺν πατρὶ καὶ υἱῷ προσκυνούμενον καὶ συνδοξαζόμνον, τὸ λαλῆσαν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν.— Εἰς μίαν ἁγίαν καθολικὴν καὶ ἀποστολικὴν ἐκκλησίαν‧ ὁμολογοῦμεν ἓν βάπτισμα εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν‧ προσδοκῶμεν ἀνάστασιν νεκρῶν καὶ ζωὴν τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος. Ἀμήν.

Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 667– 668 §129;
cf. Rodney J. Decker, Greek Creeds: Nicene, Chalcedonian (PDF, 2004)


   
The Nicæno- Constantinopolitan Creed


Credimus in unum deum patrem omnipotentem, factorem caeli et terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium; et in unum dominum Iesum Christum filium dei unigenitum, ex patre natum ante omnia saecula, deum ex deo, lumen ex lumine, deum verum ex deo vero, natum non factum, omousion patri, hoc est eiusdem cum patre substantiae, per quem omnia facta sunt, qui propter nos homines et nostram salutem descendit et incarnatus est de spiritu sancto et Maria virgine humanatus est et crucifixus pro nobis est sub Pontio Pilato et sepultus et tertia die resurrexit et ascendit in caelis et sedit ad dexeram patris et iterum venturus cum gloria iudicare vivos et mortuos, cuius regni non erit finis; et in spiritum sanctu, dominum et vivificatorem, ex patre procedentem, cum patre et filio coadorandum et conglorificandum, qui locutus est per prophetas; in unam catholicam et apostolicam ecclesiam; confitemur unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum et expectamus resurrectionem mortuorum et vitam futuri saeculi. amen.

Jaroslav Pelikan and Valerie Hotchkiss, eds., Early, Eastern, & Midieval (vol 1 of Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition; New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 162

   
The Nicæno- Constantinopolitan Creed of 381
(without filioque)


"We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.
   "And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only- begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds (æons), Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man; he was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and was buried, and the third day he rose again, according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father; from thence he cometh again, with glory, to judge the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end.
   "And in the Holy Ghost, who is Lord and Giver of life, who proceedeth from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spake by the prophets.— In one holy catholic and apostolic church; we acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen."


Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 668– 669 §129;
cf. Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 163



The Nicene Creed
(with filioque)


I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth and of all things visible and invisible.
   And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only- begotten Son of God, begotten of His Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made; who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the virgin Mary and was made man; and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried. And the third day He rose again according to Scriptures and ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father. And He will come again with glory to judge both the living and the dead, whose kingdom will have no end.
   And I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son, who with thr Father and the Son together is worshiped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets. And I believe in one holy Christian and apostolic Church, I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins, and I look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen.


Paul Timothy McCain, Edward Andrew Engelbrecht, Robert Cleveland Baker, and Gene Edward Veith, eds., Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions (2nd ed.; revised, updated and annotated based on the translation by William Hermann Theodore Dau and Gerhard Friedrich Bente; St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 2006), 16

 
fixed link The controversial filioque clause (i.e., "And in the Holy Ghost … who proceedeth from the Father and the Son") was likely influenced by Augustine's trinitarian theology and had its roots in Spain (against the Arian heresy). It was first added at the Council of Toledo (589), but was not widely used in the Western Church until about the beginning of the ninth century, under the reign of Charlemagne. It was not recognised by the Pope of Rome until about the eleventh century, and it was not officially sanctioned until the Second Council of Lyons (1274). The filioque clause (among other issues) contributed to the Great Schism between Eastern and Western Churches (which lasted until the late 20th century, but the filioque remains unrecognised by the Eastern Church to this day).
   More information on the Nicæno- Constantinopolitan Creed is available from the Christian Cyclopedia (see under Nicene Creed). For additional background information on this council and creed, see Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 632– 689 §§121– 131, 705– 714 §§135– 136; Philip Schaff,
NPNF2, XIV: 161– 190 (both are available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library). To examine several key words that were used in the Greek and their meaning, see Rodney J. Decker, Greek Creeds: Nicene, Chalcedonian (PDF only). Traditional and modern English translations with additional information are available on Believe: Religious Information Source
    
fixed link Council of Constantinople held under Nectarius (394) – mentioned by name by the Quinisext Council in Trullo and said to be accepted by the Church catholic. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 511– 514. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library

fixed link Code of Canons of the African Church, a.k.a. Canons of the 217 Blessed Fathers who Assembled At Carthage (419) – mentioned by name by the Quinisext Council in Trullo and said to be accepted by the Church catholic. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 437– 510. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library

fixed link Council of Ephesus (431) Third Ecumenical Council. Addressed and condemned Nestorius (a bishop of Constantinople) and his doctrines; the true personal unity of Christ was defined, the virgin Mary was declared the Mother of God (θεοτόκος, theotokos), and the condemnation of Pelagius along with his doctrines was reaffirmed. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 191– 242; for background information to this council, see Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 632– 689 §§121– 131, 714– 733 §§137– 139, 785– 856 §§146– 158. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library

First Council of Orange (441) – deals with "the administration of the sacraments (canons i- iv, xii- xvii), the right of sanctuary (v- vi), mutual episcopal relations (viii- xi), catechumens (xviii- xx), bishops (xxi, xxx), the marriage of clerics (xxii- xxv), deaconesses (xxvi), widowhood and virginity (xxvii- xxviii), the holding of councils (xxix)." Learn more about the first and second Councils of Orange from the Catholic Encyclopedia
  
link wanted Second Council of Ephesus, a.k.a. Council of Robbers (449) – reaffirmed condemnation of Nestorius, but Dioscorus of Alexandra "presided, with brutal violence, protected by monks and an armed soldiery" (HCC 3:736) to force his erroneous rejection of the two natures in Christ (Dyophysitism) and promotion of the erroneous teachings of Eutyches (Monophysitism). This council was nullified by the Council of Chalcedon (451). For more background information, see Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 734– 747 §§140– 141


fixed link Council of Chalcedon (451) Fourth Ecumenical Council. Addressed and condemned Eutyches and his doctrines; the two natures in Christ were also defined (Dyophysitism). Includes what is known as the Chalcedon Creed:
  
The Symbol of Chalcedon
(22 October 451)


Ἑπόμενοι τοίνυν τοῖς ἁγίοις πατράσιν ἕνα καὶ τὸν αὐτὸν ὁμολογεῖν υἱὸν τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν συμφώνως ἅπαντες ἐκδιδάσκομεν, τέλειον τὸν αὑτὸν ἐν θεότητι καὶ τέλειον τὸν αὑτὸν ἐν ἀνθρωπότητι, θεὸν ἀληθῶς καὶ ἄνθρωπον ἀληθῶς τὸν αὐτὸν, ἐκ ψυχῆς λογικῆς καὶ σώματος, ὁμοούσιον τῷ πατρὶ κατὰ τὴν θεότητα, καὶ ὁμοούσιον τὸν αὐτὸν ἡμῖν κατὰ τὴν ἀνθρωπότητα, κατὰ πάντα ὅμοιον ἡμῖν χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας‧ πρὸ αἰώνων μὲν ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς γεννηθέντα κατὰ τὴν θεότητα, ἐπ᾿ ἐσχάτων δὲ τῶν ἡμερῶν τὸν αὐτὸν δι᾿ ἡμᾶς καὶ διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηρίαν ἐκ Μαρίας τῆς παρθένου τῆς θεοτόκου κατὰ τὴν ἀνθρωπότητα, ἕνα καὶ τὸν αὐτὸν Χριστόν, υἱόν, κύριον, μονογενή, ἐκ δύο φύσεων [or ἐν δύο φύσεσιν], ἀσυγχύτως, ἀτρέπτως, ἀδιαιρέτως, ἀχωρίστως, γνωριζόμενον‧ οὐδαμοῦ τῆς τῶν φύσεων διαφορᾶς ἀνῃρημένης διὰ τὴν ἕνωσιν, σωζομένης δὲ μᾶλλον τῆς ἰδιότητος ἑκατέρας φύσεως καὶ εἰς ἓν πρόσωπον καὶ μίαν ὑπόστασιν συντρεχούσης, οὐχ εἰς δύο πρόσωπα μεριζόμενον ἢ διαιρούμενον, ἀλλ᾿ ἕνα καὶ τὸν αὐτὸν υἱὸν καὶ μονογενῆ, θεὸν λόγον, κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν‧ καθάπερ ἄνωθεν οἱ προφῆται περὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτὸς ἡμᾶς ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς ἐξεπαίδευσε καὶ τὸ τῶν πατέρων ἡμῖν παραδέδωκε σύμβολον.

Philip Schaff, ed. "III. Symbolum Chalcedonense," in The Greek and Latin Creeds (rev. by David S. Schaff; 3 vols.; sixth ed.; vol. 2 in The Creeds of Christendom; 1889, 1931; repr. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 2007), 62– 63

 
Symbolum Chalcedonense
(22 October 451)


Sequentes igitur sanctos patres, unum eundemque confiteri FILIUM et DOMINUM NOSTRUM JESUM CHRISTUM consonanter omnes docemus, eundem perfectum in deitate et eundem perfectum in humanitate; Deum verum et hominem verum eundem ex anima rationali et corpore; consubstantialem Patri secundum deitatem, consubstantialem nobis eundem secundum humanitatem; 'per omnia nobis similem, absque peccato' (Heb. iv.): ante secula quidem de Patre genitum secundum deitatem; in novissimis autem diebus eundem propter nos et propter nostram salutem ex Maria virgine, Dei genitrice secundum humanitatem; unum eundemque Christum, filium, Dominum, unigenitum, in duabus naturis INCONFUSE, IMMUTABILITER, INDIVISE, INSEPERABILITER agnoscendum: nusquam sublata differentia naturarum propter unitionem, magisque salva proprietate utriusque naturæ, et in unam personam atque subsistentiam concurrente: non in duos personas partitum aut divisum, sed unum eundemque Filium et unigenitum, Deum verbum, Dominum Jesum Christum; sicut ante prophetæ de eo et ipse nos Jesus Christus erudivit et patrum nobis symbolum tradidit.

Philip Schaff, ed. "III. Symbolum Chalcedonense," in The Greek and Latin Creeds (rev. by David S. Schaff; 3 vols.; sixth ed.; vol. 2 in The Creeds of Christendom; 1889, 1931; repr. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 2007), 63

    
The Chalcedonian Creed


We, then, following the holy Fathers, all with one consent, teach men to confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in manhood; truly God and truly man, of a reasonable [rational] soul and body; consubstantial [coessential] with the Father according to the Godhead, and consubstantial with us according to the Manhood; in all things like unto us, without sin; begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead, and in these latter days, for us and for our salvation, born of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, according to the Manhood; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only- begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably; the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person and one Subsistence, not parted or divided into two persons, but one and the same Son, and only begotten, God the Word, the Lord Jesus Christ, as the prophets from the beginning [have declared] concerning him, and the Lord Jesus Christ himself has taught us, and the Creed of the holy Fathers has handed down to us.

Philip Schaff, ed. "III. Symbolum Chalcedonense," in The Greek and Latin Creeds (rev. by David S. Schaff; 3 vols.; sixth ed.; vol. 2 in The Creeds of Christendom; 1889, 1931; repr. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 2007), 62– 63

 
fixed link More background information on this council and the Chalcedonian Creed is available from the Christian Cyclopedia. See also Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 734– 762 §§140– 142; Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 243– 295 (both are available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library). To examine several key words that appear in the Greek and their meaning, see Rodney J. Decker, Greek Creeds: Nicene, Chalcedonian (PDF only)

Athanasian Creed (ca. 5th century) – ecumenical. Ascribed to Athanasius, but unlikely since early councils do not mention this creed, its original form is Latin (whereas Athanasius wrote in Greek), and it reflects the trinitarian theology of Ambrose (d. 397), Augustine (writings on The Trinity, 415), and Vincentius of Lerinum (Commonitorium, 434). Likely originated in southern Gaul (France)
   
The Athanasian Creed
(Quicunque Vult)


Quicunque vult salvus esse, ante omnia opus est, ut teneat catholicam fidem. [2] Quam nisi quisque integram inviolatamque servaverit, absque dubio in æternum peribit.
   [3] Fides autem catholica hæc est, ut unum Deum in trinitate, et trinitatem in unitate veneremur; [4] Neque confundentes personas; neque substantiam seperantes.
   [5] Alia est enim persona Patris: alia Filii: alia Spiritus Sancti. [6] Sed Patris, et Filii et Spiritus Sancti una est divinitas: æqualis gloria, coæterna maiestas.
   [7] Qualis Pater, talis Filius, talis (et) Spiritus Sanctus. [8] Increatus Pater: increatus Filius: increatus (et) Spiritus Sanctus. [9] Immensus Pater: immensus Filius: immensus (et) Spiritus Sanctus. [10] Æternus Pater: æternus Filius: æternus (et) Spiritus Sanctus. [11] Et tamen non tres æterni: sed unus æternus. [12] Sicut non tres increati: nec tres immensi: sed unus increatus et unus immensus. [13] Similiter omnipotens Pater: omnipotens Filius: omnipotens (et) Spiritus Sanctus. [14] Et tamen non tres omnipotentes; sed unus omnipotens.
   [15] Ita Deus Pater: Deus Filius: Deus (et) Spiritus Sanctus. [16] Et tamen non tres Dii; sed unus est Deus. [17] Ita Dominus Pater: Dominus Filius: Dominus (et) Spiritus Sanctus. [18] Et tamen non tres Domini; sed unus est Dominus. [19] Quia sicut singulatim unamquamque personam et Deum et Dominum confiteri christiana veritate compellimur: [20] Ita tres Deos, aut (tres) Dominos dicere catholica religione prohibemur.
   [21] Pater a nullo est factus; nec creatus; nec genitus. [22] Filius a Patre solo est: non factus; nec creatus; sed genitus. [23] Spiritus Sanctus a Patre et Filio: non factus; nec creatus; nec genitus (est); sed procedens. [24] Unus ergo Pater, non tres Patres: unus Filius, non tres Filii: unus Spiritus Sanctus, non tres Spiritus Sancti. [25] Et in hac trinitate nihil prius, aut posterius: nihil maius, aut minus. [26] Sed totæ tres personæ coæternæ sibi sunt et coæquales. [27] Ita, ut per omnia, sicut jam supra dictum est, et unitas in trinitate et trinitas in unitate veneranda sit. [28] Qui vult ergo salvus esse, ita de trinitate sentiat.
   [29] Sed necessarium est ad æternam salutem, ut incarnationem quoque Domini nostri Jesu Christi fideliter credat. [30] Est ergo fides recta ut credamus et confiteamur quod Dominus noster Jesus Christus, Dei Filius, Deus pariter et Homo est. [31] Deus ex substantia Patris, ante sacula genitus, et Homo ex substantia matris, in seculo natus. [32] Perfectus Deus: perfectus Homo, ex anima rationali et humana carne subsistens. [33] Æqualis Patri secundum divinitatem: minor Patre secundum humanitatem.
   [34] Qui licet Deus sit et Homo; non duo tamen, sed unus est Christus. [35] Unus autem, non conversione divinitatis in carnem, sed assumtione humanitatis in Deum. [36] Unus omnino, non confusione substantiæ, sed unitate personæ. [37] Nam sicut anima rationalis et caro unus est homo: ita Deus et Homo unus est Christus.
   [38] Qui passus est pro salute nostra: descendit ad inferos: tertia die resurrexit a mortuis. [39] Ascendit ad cœlos: sedet ad dexteram (Dei) Patris omnipotentis: [40] Inde venturus (est), judicare vivos et mortuos. [41] Ad cuius adventum omnes homines resurgere habent cum corporibus suis; [42] Et reddituri sunt de factis propriis rationem. [43] Et qui bona egerunt, ibunt in vitam æternam; qui vero mala, in ignem æternum.
   [44] Hæc est fides catholica, quam nisi quisque fideliter firmiterque crediderit, salvus esse non poterit.

 
Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 690– 695 §132

    
The Athanasian Creed


Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he hold the catholic [true Christian] faith [2] Which faith except every one do keep whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall perish everlastingly.
   [3] But this is the catholic faith: That we worship one God in trinity, and trinity in unity; [4] Neither confounding the persons; nor dividing the substance.
   [5] For there is one person of the Father: another of the Son: another of the Holy Ghost. [6] But the Godhead of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is all one: the glory equal, the majesty coëternal.
   [7] Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Ghost. [8] The Father is uncreated: the Son is uncreated: the Holy Ghost is uncreated. [9] The Father is immeasurable: the Son is immeasurable: the Holy Ghost is immeasurable. [10] The Father is eternal: the Son eternal: the Holy Ghost eternal. [11] And yet there are not three eternals; but one eternal. [12] As also there are not three uncreated: nor three immeasurable: but one uncreated, and one immeasurable. [13] So likewise the Father is almighty: the Son almighty: and the Holy Ghost almighty. [14] And yet there are not three almighties: but one almighty.
   [15] So the Father is God: the Son is God: and the Holy Ghost is God. [16] And yet there are not three Gods; but one God. [17] So the Father is Lord: the Son Lord: and the Holy Ghost Lord. [18] And yet not three Lords; but one Lord. [19] For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge every Person by himself to be God and Lord: [20] So are we forbidden by the catholic religion to say, there are three Gods, or three Lords.
   [21] The Father is made of none; neither created; nor begotten. [22] The Son is of the Father alone: not made; nor created; but begotten. [23] The Holy Ghost is of the Father and the Son: not made; neither created; nor begotten; but proceeding. [24] Thus there is one Father, not three Fathers: one Son, not three Sons: one Holy Ghost, not three Holy Ghosts. [25] And in this Trinity none is before or after another: none is greater or less than another. [26] But the whole three Persons are co- eternal together, and co- equal. [27] So that in all things, as aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity is to be worshipped. [28] He therefore that will be saved, must thus think of the Trinity.
   [29] Furthermore, it is necessary to everlasting salvation, that we believe also rightly in the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ. [30] For the right faith is, that we believe and confess, that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man. [31] God, of the substance of the Father, begotten before the worlds: and Man, of the substance of his mother, born in the world. [32] Perfect God: perfect Man, of a reasonable soul and human flesh subsisting. [33] Equal to the Father as touching His Godhead: and inferior to the Father as touching His Manhood.
   [34] And although He be God and Man; yet He is not two, but one Christ. [35] One, not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh; but by assumption of the Manhood into God. [36] One altogether, not by confusion of substance; but by unity of person. [37] For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man; so God and Man is one Christ.
   [38] Who suffered for our salvation: descended into hades: rose again the third day from the dead. [39] He ascended into heaven: He sitteth on the right hand of God, the Father almighty: [40] From whence He shall come to judge the quick and the dead. [41] At whose coming all men must rise again with their bodies; [42] And shall give account for their own works. [43] And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting; but they that have done evil, into everlasting fire.
   [44] This is the catholic faith; which except a man believe truly and firmly, he can not be saved.


Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 690– 695 §132


The Athanasian Creed


Whoever wants to be saved must, above all, hold the catholic faith. Whoever does not keep it whole and inviolate will doubtless perish eternally.
   This, however, is the catholic faith: that we worship one God in trinity and the Trinity in unity, neither confusing the persons nor dividing the substance.
   For the person of the Father is one, that of the Son another, and that of the Holy Spirit still another, but the deity of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit is one— equal in glory, coequal in majesty.
   What the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Spirit. The Father is uncreated; the Son is uncreated; the Holy Spirit is uncreated. The Father is unlimited; the Son is unlimited; the Holy Spirit is unlimited. The Father is eternal; the Son is eternal; the Holy Spirit is eternal— and yet there are not three eternal beings but one who is eternal, just as there are not three uncreated or unlimited beings, but one who is uncreated and unlimited. In the same way, the Father is almighty; the Son is almighty; the Holy Spirit is almighty— and yet there are not three almighty beings but one who is almighty.
   Thus, the Father is God; the Son is God; the Holy Spirit is God— and yet there are not three gods but one God. Thus, the Father is Lord; the Son is Lord; the Holy Spirit is Lord— and yet there are not three lords, but one Lord. For just as we are compelled by the Christian truth to confess that each distinct person is God and Lord, so we are forbidden by the catholic religion to say there are three gods or three lords.
   The Father was neither made nor created nor begotten by anyone. The Son is from the Father alone, not made or created but begotten. The Holy Spirit is from the Father and the Son, not made or created or begotten but proceeding. Therefore there is one Father, not three fathers; one Son, not three sons; one Holy Spirit, not three holy spirits. And in this Trinity none is before or after, greater or less than another, but all three persons are in themselves coeternal and coequal, so that (as has been stated above) in all things the Trinity in unity and the Unity in trinity must be worshiped. Therefore, who wants to be saved should think thus about the Trinity.
   But it is necessary for eternal salvation that one also faithfully believe the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore it is the true faith that we believe and confess that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is at once God and a human being. He is God, begotten from the substance of the Father before all ages, and a human being, born from the substance of his mother in this age. He is perfect God and a perfect human being, composed of a rational soul and human flesh. He is equal to the Father with respect to his divinity, less than the Father with respect to his humanity.
   Although he is God and a human being, nevertheless he is not two but one Christ. However, he is one not by the changing of the divinity in the flesh but by the taking up of the humanity in God. Indeed, he is one not by a confusion of substance but by a unity of person. For, as the rational soul and the flesh are one human being, so God and the human being are one Christ.
   He suffered for our salvation, descended into hell, rose from the dead, ascended into the heavens, is seated at the right hand of the Father, from where he will come to judge the living and the dead. At his coming all human beings will rise with their bodies and will give an account of their own deeds. Those who have done good things will enter into eternal life, and those who have done evil things into eternal fire.
   This is the catholic faith; a person cannot be saved without believing this firmly and faithfully.


Robert Kolb and Timothy J. Wengert, eds., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church (translated by Charles Arand, Eric Gritsch, Robert Kolb, William Russell, James Schaaf, Jane Strohl, Timothy J. Wengert; Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress Press, 2000), 24– 25

   
fixed link More information on the Athanasian Creed is available from the Christian Cyclopedia. For additional background information on this creed, see Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 689– 698 §132 (available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library). The Latin and English versions with some additional information are available on Believe: Religious Information Source
 
Second Council of Orange (529) – addressed and condemned semi- Pelagianism. See Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 857– 870 §§159– 160 (available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library). Also available here on the Eternal Word Television Network (ETWN)
 
fixed link Second Council of Constantinople (553) Fifth Ecumenical Council. Addressed and condemned the errors of "the Three Chapters"— i.e., Theodore (bishop of Mopsuestia and teacher of Nestorius), the anti- Cyrillian writings of Theodoret (bishop of Cyros [Cyrrhus | Cyr]), and the letter of Ibas (bishop of Edessa and friend of Nestorius). Also reaffirmed the condemnation of "Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Apollinaris, Nestorius, Eutyches and Origen, as well as their impious writings" (NPNF2, 314). The canons and conclusions of the first four ecumenical councils— especially from the Council of Chalcedon (431), which were challenged by some heretics— were reaffirmed. See Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX: Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy," in Anti- Nicene Christianity (8 vols.; 5th ed., revised; vol. 3 in History of the Christian Church; 1867; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 762– 783 §§143– 145; Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 297– 323. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library

Council of Toledo (675) – a small local council. "The official value of this document consists in the fact that in subsequent centuries it was kept in highest regard and considered a genuine expression of the Trinitarian faith; it is one of the important formulas of doctrine. In fact, hardly anywhere is the reflection of the early Church on the Trinitarian mystery and on Christ expressed with such precision and acumen as in this Creed which sums up the tradition of the earlier Councils and patristic theology of the West." Recognised only by the Western Church. Available on the Eternal Word Television Network (ETWN)

fixed link Third Council of Constantinople (680– 681) Sixth Ecumenical Council. Addressed and condemned Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, Macarius, all their followers, along with their doctrines; the doctrine of the two wills in Christ (divine and the human) was defined as two distinct principles of operation (Dyothelitism) to end Monothelitism; also condemned Pope Honorius I (of Rome, 625– 638) and his Monothelite teachings. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 325– 353. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library

fixed link Council of Trullo, a.k.a. Quinisext Council (692 or 697) – detailed canons and rulings are approved by name in Canon 2 of this synod. Recognised only by the Eastern Church. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 355– 408, 589– 615. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library

fixed link Second Council of Nicæa (787) Seventh Ecumenical Council. The veneration of holy images was authoritised. See Philip Schaff, NPNF2, XIV: 521– 587. Available on Christian Classics Ethereal Library


Ecumenicalism Ends
between Eastern and Western Churches


archived Fourth Council of Constantinople (869– 870) – Eighth Council. "Consigned to the flames the Acts of an irregular council (conciliabulum) brought together by Photius against Pope Nicholas and Ignatius the legitimate Patriarch of Constantinople; it condemned Photius who had unlawfully seized the patriarchal dignity. The Photian Schism, however, triumphed in the Greek Church, and no other general council took place in the East" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent). Recognised only by the Western Church. A backup of the site (21 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive


The Great Schism
between Eastern and Western Churches
(16 July 1054)

 

fixed link Waldensian Confession of Faith (ca. 1120 / 1544) – Anabaptist (Waldenses). The beliefs, teachings and writings of Peter Waldo mixed with those of Arnold of Brescia, Pierre de Bruys, and others. Anabaptists and denominations with Anabaptist roots claim to have their roots in these early reformers. Available on The Reformed Reader

 
archived First Lateran Council (1123) – Nineth Council. "It abolished the right claimed by lay princes, of investiture with ring and crosier to ecclesiastical benefices and dealt with church discipline and the recovery of the Holy Land from the infidels" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent). Recognised only by the Western Church. A backup of the site (21 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive

archived Second Lateran Council (1139) – Tenth Council. "Its object was to put an end to the errors of Arnold of Brescia" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent). For information on Arnold of Brescia, see Philip Schaff, "Chapter IV: The Papacy from the Concordat of Worms to Innocent III. A. D. 1122– 1198," in The Middle Ages (8 vols.; 1st ed.; vol. 5 in History of the Christian Church; 1907; repr. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2006), 96– 102 §26. Recognised only by the Western Church. A backup of the site (21 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive

archived Third Lateran Council (1179) – Eleventh Council. "It condemned the Albigenses and Waldenses and issued numerous decrees for the reformation of morals" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent). Recognised only by the Western Church. A backup of the site (21 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive

archived Fourth Lateran Council (1215) – Twelfth Council. "It issued an enlarged creed (symbol) against the Albigenses (Firmiter credimus), condemned the Trinitarian errors of Abbot Joachim, and published 70 important reformatory decrees. This is the most important council of the Middle Ages, and it marks the culminating point of ecclesiastical life and papal power" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent). Recognised only by the Western Church. A backup of the site (21 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive

archived First Council of Lyons (1245) – Thirteenth Council. "It excommunicated and deposed Emperor Frederick II and directed a new crusade, under the command of St. Louis, against the Saracens and Mongols" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent). Recognised only by the Western Church. A backup of the site (21 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive

archived Second Council of Lyons (1274) – Fourteenth Council. "It effected a temporary reunion of the Greek Church with Rome. The word filioque was added to the symbol of Constantinople and means were sought for recovering Palestine from the Turks. It also laid down the rules for papal elections" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent). Recognised only by the Western Church. A backup of the site (21 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive

archived Council of Vienne in France (1311– 1313) – Fifteenth Council. It "dealt with the crimes and errors imputed to the Knights Templars, the Fraticelli, the Beghards, and the Beguines, with projects of a new crusade, the reformation of the clergy, and the teaching of Oriental languages in the universities" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent). Recognised only by the Western Church. A backup of the site (21 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive
  

Early Attempts to Reform Western Church
(England, ca. 1378; Bohemia, ca. 1402)


link wanted Council of Pisa (1409) – this council was intended to bring the Great Schism of the Western Church, caused by the election of two rival popes 31 years earlier (1378), to an end. Instead, this council resulted in greater confusion when a third pope was elected to dispose of the aforesaid, but they rejected the validity of both his election and this council. Learn more about the Council of Pisa from the Catholic Encyclopedia (available on Catholic City)

 
archived Council of Constance (1414– 1418) – Sixteenth Council. It "was held during the great Schism of the West, with the object of ending the divisions in the Church. It became legitimate only when Gregory XI had formally convoked it. Owing to this circumstance it succeeded in putting an end to the schism by the election of Pope Martin V, which the Council of Pisa (1409) had failed to accomplish on account of its illegality. The rightful pope confirmed the former decrees of the synod against Wyclif and Hus. This council is thus ecumenical only in its last sessions (42– 45 inclusive) and with respect to the decrees of earlier sessions approved by Martin V" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent). Recognised only by the Western Church. A backup of the site (21 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive

archived Council of Basle (1431– 1445) – Seventeenth Council. "Its object was the religious pacification of Bohemia. Quarrels with the pope having arisen, the council was transferred first to Ferrara (1438), then to Florence (1439), where a short- lived union with the Greek Church was effected, the Greeks accepting the council's definition of controverted points. The Council of Basle is only ecumenical till the end of the twenty- fifth session, and of its decrees Eugene IV approved only such as dealt with the extirpation of heresy, the peace of Christendom, and the reform of the Church, and which at the same time did not derogate from the rights of the Holy See" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent). A backup of the site (21 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive. An article is also available on the Eternal Word Television Network (EWTN). Recognised only by the Western Church

archived Fifth Lateran Council (1512– 1517) – Eighteenth Council. "Its decrees are chiefly disciplinary. A new crusade against the Turks was also planned, but came to naught, owing to the religious upheaval in Germany caused by Luther" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent). Recognised only by the Western Church. A backup of the site (21 July 2011) is available on Internet Archive


Reformation of the Western Church
(Germany, 31 October 1517)


fixed link 95 Theses (1517) – Martin Luther. Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran). Intending to hold an academic debate on indulgences, Martin Luther nailed these 95 Theses against the abuse of indulgences to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg on 31 October 1517 (written in Latin, against John Tetzel's abusive sale of indulgences). From there, people translated his Theses into German, copied it at a local printing press (a recent invention), and distributed copies throughout Germany— thus setting events in motion that would bring about the Reformation of the Western Church

67 Articles (1523) – Ulrich Zwingli. Swiss Reformed (Zwinglian). Prepared for a public disputation in Zurich, and was influencial in the repudiation of Roman Catholicism in Zurich

fixed link The Schleitheim Articles (January 1527) – Anabaptist. The Articles reflect the united beliefs, teachings and practices of Anabaptists, which resulted from a secret meeting known as the Schleitheim synod or conference. These Articles address 1) baptism (requires a confession of faith and commitment to Christ; infant baptism considered invalid, those baptised as infants were to be rebaptised); 2) Lord's Supper (reserved for those who committed themselves to Anabaptist beliefs); 3) separation of church and state; 4) choosing pastors (from among those gathered, often quickly due to persecution); 5) use of weapons and violence (rejected any use of violence); and 6) oaths (which they rejected). Adopted by the Swiss Brethren Conference and the Mennonite Church. Available on The Reformed Reader

new link Discipline of the Church (1527) – Anabaptist. "The church of the Anabaptists was unique in that it was a disciplined and regulated church. The discipline was accepted voluntarily by the individual, as it concerned how he should live in the brotherhood; and by the church, as it concerned how the fellowship should be maintained if the principles of the Sermon on the Mount were to be applied practically. A church-order (Gemeinde- Ordnung) or 'discipline' thus was called for as a set of rules.  The Schleitheim Articles was the first such discipline, and Robert Friedmann has identified another, from the same period, long concealed in the Hutterian chronicle (Geschicht- Buch der Hutterischen Bruder). The section of the Geschicht- Buch containing twelve brief articles seems to have come from the pre- Hutterian period (before 1528, when part of the movement began to practice communism and pacifism in Moravia). The brief document gives the impression of being a first or preliminary draft. A finished draft may never have appeared because the Tyrolean government broke up the Anabaptist congregation at Rattenberg. Many members lost their lives and the others fled to Moravia. The Discipline was carried with the refugees, preserved, and its instructions were observed faithfully." Available on The Reformed Reader


fixed link The Marburg Articles (1– 4 October 1529) – Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran) and Swiss Reformed (Zwinglian). Initiated by Landgrave Philip of Hesse, who sought doctrinal unity between Evangelicals and the Swiss Reformed so that the latter could be included in a proposed federation. (It was agreed that full doctrinal unity was essential for inclusion in a proposed federation.) Doctrinal agreement was reached between Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli, Oecolampadius, Andreas Osiander, Johann Brez, and Stephan Agricola on fourteen (14) articles, but they disagreed on one (1) article— i.e., whether the body and blood of Christ are present in the bread and wine in a real and substantial manner (Evangelical) or in a spiritual manner (Swiss Reformed).
   The Evangelical understanding is tied in with the two natures in Christ. Thus the body and blood of Christ cannot be present in a merely spiritual (i.e., metaphysical, divine) manner, but must also be present in a true, substantial, and physical manner (both divine and human natures); not by conversion (Eastern Church), nor by transubstantiation (Roman Catholicism), nor by consubstantiation (falsely attributed to Evangelicals), but Sacramentally (taken from Latin, meaning 'mystery'). Thus, in accord with the Words of Christ and the distribution of the elements (bread and wine), the physical body of Jesus is supernaturally (i.e., mysteriously; sacramentally) present and eaten with the bread, while the physical blood of Jesus is likewise supernaturally (i.e., mysteriously; sacramentally) present and consumed with the wine (Matt 26:26– 28; Mark 14:22– 24; Luke 22:19– 20; 1 Cor 11:23– 29). This is practiced in accord with God's Word, in remembrance of Him (1 Cor 11:24– 25) and with the proclaimation of His death until He comes (1 Cor 11:26). Believers therefore receive in this cup the benefits and promises of His blood for the forgiveness of their sins (Matt 26:27– 28; cf. Isa 53:5), while unbelievers receive judgement (1 Cor 11:27– 29). Therefore, because of these promises and benefits, Evangelicals consider the Lord's Supper to be an essential article of faith for Christian unity. However, because of the warnings of guilt and judgement against any who do not share in the unity of this faith and who do not recognise His body and blood in this Sacrament (1 Cor 10:16– 17; 11:27– 29), Evangelicals (i.e. Confessional Lutherans) do not give this Sacrament to everyone but practice close(d) communion.
   The Swiss Reformed understanding ignores the two natures in Christ. Thus the body and blood of Christ can be present (and is present) in a merely spiritual (i.e., metaphysical, divine) manner, devoid of any true, substantial, or physical presence. Furthermore, the flesh is understood to be of no benefit, but it is the Spirit who gives life, and it is the words of Jesus that are spirit and life (John 6:63; Zwingli understood the flesh to be Christ's flesh; however, Scripture disagrees with Zwingli— e.g., Isaiah 53; cf. 1 Peter 2:24). Therefore, since the physical body and blood of Christ are allegedly of no benefit, and it is the Spirit who gives life, and Jesus' words are spirit and life, it is reasoned (based on John 6:63, Zwingli argued) that Jesus' words cannot be literal but must be metaphorical. All benefits or promises connected with the Lord's Supper are not received in or with the bread or the wine itself, but are received "spiritually" by faith through the remembrance of Christ's death. Therefore, the Swiss Reformed do not consider the Lord's Supper to be an essential article of faith for Christian unity.
   Thus, what Evangelicals considered essential, the Swiss Reformed considered non- essential. Consequently, since full doctrinal unity was not reached with the Evangelicals, the Swiss Reformed were excluded from the proposed federation (which fell apart at Schmalkalden (November– December 1529) when the importance of doctrinal unity was emphasied over the importance of social unity). These Marburg Articles reflect the articles of faith that Luther and theologians at Wittenberg prepared for the colloque in Schwabach (see Schwabach Articles, below), but Zwingli abandoned most of these tenets of faith (which he claimed to agree with) when he wrote his Ratio fides (see Ground of Faith, below). See Robert Kolb and James A. Nestingen, eds., "The Marburg Articles," in Sources and Contexts of The Book of Concord (translated by William R. Russell; Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg Fortress Press, 2001), 88– 92. A detailed historical account of the events at Marburg and the formation of these articles is detailed in the book by Hermann Sasse, This is My Body (revised Australian edition; Adelaide: Openbook Publishing, 1977)

 
archived The Schwabach Articles (16 October 1529) – Martin Luther and theologians at Wittenberg. Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran). These seventeen (17) articles of faith were drafted between ca. 25 July and 14 September 1529 and reflected in The Marburg Articles (above). They were then presented on 16 October at Schwabach to government representatives from several German cities interested in forming a united federation, discussed and decided upon at Schmalkalden in November– December 1529 (emphasis on the importance of doctrinal unity brought the federation to an end), and were used by Melanchthon in preparing the Augsburg Confession (below). A backup of the site (17 July 2006) is available on Internet Archive. See Robert Kolb and James A. Nestingen, eds., "The Schwabach Articles," in Sources and Contexts of The Book of Concord (translated by William R. Russell; Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg Fortress Press, 2001), 83– 87

link wanted The Torgau Articles (27 March 1530) – Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran). In January 1530, Emperor Charles V issued a summons for a Diet in Augsburg, and demanded from princes (who supported Luther and Lutheran reforms) an explanation for changes being made in their churches. Upon receiving the summons (11 March 1530), Elector John of Saxony commissioned to have a suitable response produced by his theologians at Wittenberg. Thus, John the Constant brought Luther, Melanchthon, Johann Bugenhagen, and Justus Jonas together in Torgau to deliberate articles of faith and practices. Soon afterward, on 27 March 1530, The Torgau Articles were completed. (Note: Nothing seems to remain of these Articles except an incomplete draft of the manuscript with editing notes in both Latin and German.) See Robert Kolb and James A. Nestingen, eds., "The Torgau Articles," in Sources and Contexts of The Book of Concord (translated by William R. Russell; Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg Fortress Press, 2001), 93– 104

fixed link updated The Augsburg Confession (25 June 1530) – Philipp Melanchthon. Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran). This confession sets forth and clarifies the Evangelical (Lutheran) doctrine as nothing new but consistant with the true Church from the time of the apostles, emphasising personal salvation through justification by faith alone, and distinguishing itself from the problematic and even heretical beliefs and teachings of Anabaptists, Zwingli, and numerous other heretics and 'Protestants' that arose. It also calls attention to several abuses that had entered Roman Catholicism (many of which were recent), offering suggestions for reform. Philipp Melanchthon continued to modify the document over the next several years, even publishing a version (known as the Variata edition of 1540) which found approval with John Calvin and numerous others due to its well- worded ambiguity. By the late 1570s, however, the original Augsburg Confession of 1530 was deemed authoritative over the later variations. This confession was initially presented to the Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg (1530). See Paul Timothy McCain, Edward Andrew Engelbrecht, Robert Cleveland Baker, and Gene Edward Veith, eds., Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions (2nd ed.; revised, updated and annotated based on the translation by William Hermann Theodore Dau and Gerhard Friedrich Bente; St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 2006), [21–] 27– 63. A detailed overview of the history and events surrounding the formation of the Augsburg Confession, including several letters, drafts and revisions of various significant documents (including the Variata edition), is detailed in the book by Johann Michael Reu, ed., The Augsburg Confession: A Collection of Sources with a Historical Introduction (St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 2005)

link wanted fixed link Ground of Faith (1530) – Ulrich Zwingli. Zwinglian. Also known by its Latin title Ratio fidei, this confession sets forth the beliefs and teachings of Ulrich Zwingli and Swiss Reformed churches. This statement of faith was intended for Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg (1530), but may have been ignored since Evangelicalism (Confessional Lutheranism) was considered a greater threat to the Holy Roman Empire. The articles of this Ground of Faith convey significant differences from what Zwingli claimed to believe at Marburg, less than a year earlier (see The Marburg Articles, above). A copy of the 1530 Latin manuscript is available online (PDF). For an English translation of this document, see Jaroslav Pelikan and Valerie Hotchkiss, eds., "Ulrich Zwingli, A Reckoning of the Faith, 1530," in Reformation Era (vol 1 of Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition; New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 252– 271

fixed link The Confutation of the Augsburg Confession (3 August 1530) – Proto- Roman Catholicism. Also know by its Latin title Confutatio pontificia (aka, Responsio pontificia). This is Rome's response to the Augsburg Confession (above). It uses several quotes from the Scripture, Apocrypha and select writings from the Church, demonstrating "marks of the thinking of traditional scholastic theologians, such as Eck and Cochlaeus, as well as those under the influence of Erasmian humanist reform ideas, such as Julius Pflug." Robert Kolb and James A. Nestingen, eds., "The Confutation of the Augsburg Confession," in Sources and Contexts of The Book of Concord (translated by Mark D. Tranvik; Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg Fortress Press, 2001), 105. See Kolb, Sources and Contexts, 105– 139. An English translation of the first draft of the Confutation (8 July 1530, transl. by J. Becker and J. Bodensieck) and the Confutatio Pontificia (3 August 1530, transl. by H. E. Jacobs) are published in Johann Michael Reu, ed., The Augsburg Confession: A Collection of Sources with a Historical Introduction (St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 2005), *326– *343, *348– *383


link wanted Prima delineatio apologiae (22 September 1530) – Philipp Melanchthon. Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran). Based on notes taken by J. Camerarius during the reading of the Confutation (1530), Melanchthon wrote the Prima delineatio apologiae as a preliminary response which was then presented to Charles V through Brück on behalf of the Evangelicals. Charles V, however, refused it. After the public release of the Roman Catholic Confutation, Melanchthon acquired a copy and continued to work on his response; he then had it published as a private document entitled Apologia confessionis (aka, Apology [Defence] of the Augsburg Confession) in 1531 (see below)

updated The Apology of the Augsburg Confession (1531, 1537) – Philipp Melanchthon. Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran). A detailed and somewhat exhaustive defense of the Augsburg Confession. It uses Scriptures and the Biblically- sound teachings of both the Early Church Fathers and numerous councils to address and clarify matters disputed within the Confutation of the Augsburg Confession (above). The Apology also addresses the Confutation's deceitful nature, its misapplication of both Scriptures and early Church writings, etc. See Paul Timothy McCain, Edward Andrew Engelbrecht, Robert Cleveland Baker, and Gene Edward Veith, eds., Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions (2nd ed.; revised, updated and annotated based on the translation by William Hermann Theodore Dau and Gerhard Friedrich Bente; St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 2006), 69– 251

link wanted The First Helvic Confession, a.k.a. Second  Confession of Basel (1536) – Johann Heinrich Bullinger, Simon Grynäus, Leo Jud, Kasper Megander, and Oswald Myconius. Swiss Reformed (Zwinglian). German version consisted of 27 articles (27 or 28 articles in the Latin); written as a result of Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Fabricus Capito's attempts to unite Evangelicals (Confessional Lutherans) and Swiss Reformed, and to bring about a general council. Over time it was considered too short and was replaced by the Second Helvic Confession (1566)

link wanted Wittenberg Concord (26 May 1536) – Martin Bucer. Bucer, Simon Grynäus, Wolfgang Fabricus Capito

new link Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) – John Calvin. Calvinism. A Latin treatise of Calvin's theology addressed to Francis I, written on behalf of persecuted Protestants in France. A second edition was published in 1539, the first French edition was published in 1540, and the final definitive edition was published in 1559. Calvin's theology appears to have been influenced by Martin Luther, but is distinct from Luther in his approach to Christianity (Calvin takes a formal and legalistic approach), his overall emphases (eg., the sovereignty, honour and glory of God; God as spiritual legislator), and in several of his beliefs and teachings (which reflect logical deductions using Scripture but do not always fit the conclusions presented by Scripture; eg., Calvin's spiritual view of 'real presence' in the Lord's Supper; predestination and election, whereby Calvin concluded many to be reprobate; God's universal grace, which Calvin applied only to the 'elect'). Calvin's theology also reflects the influences of Guillaume Farel and Martin Bucer

updated The Smalcald Articles (1537– 1538) – Martin Luther. Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran). Includes a confession on the doctrine of the Trinity, Christ's atoning work and the concept of trust in contrast to various abuses in Roman Catholicism, and various other matters of concern and doctrinal clarification (e.g., sin, Law, repentance vs. penance, Gospel, Baptism, Sacrament of the Altar, Office of the Keys, confession, excommunication, ordination and vocation, marriage of priests, the Church, justification and good works, monastic vows, human regulations / traditions). See Paul Timothy McCain, Edward Andrew Engelbrecht, Robert Cleveland Baker, and Gene Edward Veith, eds., Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions (2nd ed.; revised, updated and annotated based on the translation by William Hermann Theodore Dau and Gerhard Friedrich Bente; St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 2006), 255– 285

updated Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope (1537) – Philipp Melanchthon. Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran). Written to suppliment the Smalcald Articles (above). See Paul Timothy McCain, Edward Andrew Engelbrecht, Robert Cleveland Baker, and Gene Edward Veith, eds., Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions (2nd ed.; revised, updated and annotated based on the translation by William Hermann Theodore Dau and Gerhard Friedrich Bente; St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 2006), 291– 306

new link Ridemann's Rechenschaft (1540) – Anabaptist. "This most pretentious Anabaptist document, which enjoyed widespread use among the Hutterites and helped their struggling communities to survive, deserves far more serious study than it can receive here.  It shows indebtedness to Hubmaier's writings, especially on the subjects of baptism and the Lord's Supper. While it does not have direct bearing upon the modern Baptist denomination, it did contribute directly to the Anabaptist movement in Western Europe, with segments of which the Hutterites were in communication at various times during the 16th and 17th centuries." Available on The Reformed Reader

link wanted fixed link The Augsburg Interim (1548) – Roman Catholicism. Enforced upon Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran) lands by the imperial troops of Emperor Charles V after his army successfully defeated the Evangelical forces of the Smalcald League and imprisoned the two Evangelical princes (Landgrave Phillip of Hesse and Elector John Frederick of Saxony) who led them. This Interim sacrificed the doctrine of justification, recognised seven sacraments and transubstantiation, and interpreted the mass as a thank offering. Luther was unaffected since he had died two years earlier in 1546, while Melanchthon submitted to the Leipzig Interim (below) after opposing the Augsburg Interim for a short time. It was negated in 1552 with the Peace of Passau, which gave adherents of the Augsburg Confession inferior but legal status within the Holy Roman Empire. See Robert Kolb and James A. Nestingen, eds., "The Augsburg Interim," in Sources and Contexts of The Book of Concord (translated by Oliver K. Olson; Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg Fortress Press, 2001), 144– 182

link wanted fixed link The Leipzig Interim (1548– 1549) – Roman Catholicism and Evangelical (Lutheran). In exchange for giving support to Emperor Charles V and his Roman Catholic brother King Ferdinand against the Evangelical (Lutheran) forces of the Smalcald League, Duke Moritz of Saxony was promised that he would not have to abandon his Evangelical beliefs. However, after their victory (see above), the Augsburg Interim was insisted even upon his lands. The Leipzig Interim is a compromise between the Augsburg Interim and the Lutheran confession of faith which Moritz had his secular counselors and theological staff draft in an attempt to avoid imperial invasion while keeping the pulpits safe for Evangelical preachers. This Interim compromised the doctrine of justification by faith; reintroduced Roman Catholic ceremonies with Baptism, Corpus Christi; and included other rules favouring Roman Catholicism. Luther was unaffected since he had died two years earlier in 1546, while Melanchthon submitted to the Leipzig Interim after opposing the Augsburg Interim (above) for a short time. It was negated in 1552 with the Peace of Passau, which gave adherents of the Augsburg Confession inferior but legal status within the Holy Roman Empire. See Robert Kolb and James A. Nestingen, eds., "The Leipzig Interim," in Sources and Contexts of The Book of Concord (translated by Oliver K. Olson; Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg Fortress Press, 2001), 183– 196


new link Concensus of Zurich, aka Concensus Tigurinus (1549) – John Calvin, annotated by Johann Heinrich Bullinger. Calvinism and Swiss Reformed (Zwinglian). Contains 26 articles of faith reflecting Calvin's teachings modified to fit Swiss Reformed beliefs, in particular the teaching on the Lord's Supper (in which Christ's body and blood are now received by the power of the Holy Spirit and by the elevation of our souls to heaven, but its internal effect appears only in the elect); adopted by various Swiss centres, the beliefs and teachings of both Calvin and Zwingli were unified; thus Reformed (Calvinism) begins

link wanted Württemberg Confession (1552) – Johann Brenz. Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran)

link wanted  Forty- Two Articles of Religion (1553) – Church of England. Issued seven weeks before the death of Edward VI, these Articles are largely the work of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer


Rise of Roman Catholicism
clearly declares its beliefs, teachings and alleged authority
(1563)



Council of Trent (1554– 1563) – Roman Catholicism. "It was convoked to examine and condemn the errors promulgated by Luther and other Reformers, and to reform the discipline of the Church. Of all councils it lasted longest, issued the largest number of dogmatic and reformatory decrees, and produced the most beneficial results" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent)


link wanted Gallican Confession, a.k.a. French Confession of Faith (1559) – John Calvin, revised by Antoine de la Roche Chandieu. Reformed (Calvinism). Contains 40 articles of faith summarising Calvin's teachings; was adopted by synod at Paris (1559), then revised and ratified by synod at La Rochelle (1571)

The Scottish Confession of Faith (1560) – John Winram, John Spottiswoode, John Willock, John Douglas, John Row, and John Knox. Reformed (Calvinism). "A supplication was laid before the Parliament by the Protestant nobility, decrying the corruptions of Roman Catholicism, and seeking the abolition of Popery. … In response, the Parliament directed the Protestant noblemen and ministers to draw up 'in plain and several heads, the sum of that doctrine which they would maintain, and would desire that present Parliament to establish as wholesome, true, and only necessary to be believed and received within that realm.' Over the next four days, the Scottish Confession was drafted by six ministers: John Winram, John Spottiswoode, John Willock, John Douglas, John Row, and John Knox"

The Belgic Confession (1561, revised 1619) – Guy de Bres. Reformed (Calvinism). Contains 37 articles of faith, similar order to the Gallican Confession (1559) but less polemical and more elaborate (especially on the Trinity, incarnation, church, and Sacraments). Adopted by synods at Antwerp (1566), Wesel (1568), Emden (1571), Dordrecht (1574), Middelburg (1581), and again at Dordrecht (1619)

link wanted updated Thirty- Nine Articles of Religion (1563) – Church of England. These Articles are a revision of the Forty- Two Articles of Religion (1553). "The Articles are not as comprehensive as many of the Continental creeds. Neither do they have the full authority that was given to the creeds in Lutheran and Reformed churches. They are moderate in theological expression and are designed to provide a minimal basis for a comprehensive, national church that sought to preserve both the Catholic and Protestant traditions" (John H. Leith, Creeds of the Churches: A Reader in Christian Doctrine from the Bible to the Present (3d ed.; Louisville, Ky.: Westminster, 1982), 266)

link wanted updated Examination of the Council of Trent (1565– 1573) – Martin Chemnitz. Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran). See Martin Chemnitz, Examination of the Council of Trent (4 vols.; translated by Fred Kraemer; St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 1971– 1986)
   "Chemnitz analyzed the canons and decrees of the Council of Trent in four books and showed by exhaustive evidence from Scripture and from both the most ancient and the purer among the more modern teachers of the church where the Council of Trent had departed from the teaching of Scripture. In the first of these volumes, in the section on Scripture and Tradition, he worked out the so- called formal principle of the Reformation, that the Scripture, and not tradition or a combination of the Scripture and tradition, is the source and norm of doctrine in the Christian church.
   "[The] first volume, which appeared in 1565, covers the chief articles of the Christian faith. In the remaining three volumes he treats with equal clarity the sacraments and the abuses in the Roman Catholic Church, which the Council of Trent had sought to defend.
   "The Examen became famous at once. It was translated into German by Georg Nigrinus, into French by M. Vassorius, and by 1582 the section concerning traditions had been translated and published in English. The Examen is widely acknowledged not only as a masterful polemic against the canons and decrees of the Council of Trent but also as a thorough exposition of the faith and teaching of the adherents of the Augsburg Confession. It has earned not only the highest praise of Lutherans but also the respect of noted Roman Catholics." Martin Chemnitz, "Biographical Sketch of Martin Chemnitz," in Part 1 (4 vols.; vol. 1 in Examination of the Council of Trent; translated by Fred Kraemer; St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 1971), 1:21– 22


The Second Helvic Confession (1566) – Johann Heinrich Bullinger. Swiss Reformed (Zwinglian). Originally written in 1562 for private use as a suppliment for The First Helvic Confession (1536), but was later copied and made publically available in Zurich (1566)

Thirty- Nine Articles of Religion (1571) – Church of England

updated Correspondence between the Tübingen Theologians and Patriarch Jeremiah II of Constantinople on the Augsburg Confession (1573– 1581) – Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran) and Eastern Church (Greek Orthodox). An excellent resource and translation of this correspondence can be found in George Mastrantonis, Augsburg and Constantinople (Brookline, Mass.: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1982). A brief summary of this correspondence is available on Orthodox Christian Information Center

updated Formula of Concord: Epitome (1576) – Jakob Andreä. Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran). A summary of the Solid Declaration (below). Paul Timothy McCain, Edward Andrew Engelbrecht, Robert Cleveland Baker, and Gene Edward Veith, eds., Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions (2nd ed.; revised, updated and annotated based on the translation by William Hermann Theodore Dau and Gerhard Friedrich Bente; St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 2006), [443-] 461– 502

updated Formula of Concord: Solid Declaration (1577) – Martin Chemnitz, Jakob Andreä, Nikolaus Selnecker, Andreas Musculus, Christophorus Cornerus, and David Chytraeus. Evangelical (Confessional Lutheran). Primarily written to bring unity in Evangelicalism (Confessional Lutheranism) while both addressing and opposing deceitful, erroneous, and heretical doctrines of Philippists and Crypto- Calvinism. Those who favoured the synergism of Philipp Melanchthon and his later compromising statements on the Lord's Supper were called 'Philippists,' or sometimes they were called 'Interimists' because they, like Melanchthon, agreed to the Leipzig Interim and erroneously asserted that it only agreed with Roman Catholicism in matters of adiaphora (Gk: "indifferent things"; i.e., Church rites neither commanded nor forbidden by God, which cease being 'indifferent' when they compromise the faith by their use or disuse). Crypto- Calvinists were Philippists who suppressed and replaced Evangelical beliefs, teachings and practices with those of John Calvin while falsely professing loyalties to Evangelicalism. See Paul Timothy McCain, Edward Andrew Engelbrecht, Robert Cleveland Baker, and Gene Edward Veith, eds., Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions (2nd ed.; revised, updated and annotated based on the translation by William Hermann Theodore Dau and Gerhard Friedrich Bente; St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 2006), 505– 619

new link link wanted A True Description out of the Word of God, of the Visible Church (1589) – Henry Barrowe and John Greenwood. English Separatist- Baptist. "By 1562 Dutch exiles on English soil are said to have numbered 30,000; but the Anabaptist element among these had to lie concealed, for throughout the reign of Elizabeth the death penalty awaited any who were convicted of holding Anabaptist sentiments. These sentiments, however, seem to have penetrated areas of English life where Anabaptists themselves did not appear, and to have become part of the thought- system of the people generally, coming into expression in the radical dissent of late sixteenth and early seventeenth century England. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the interpretation of the scriptures by certain Englishmen … owed something to the infiltration of Anabaptist ideas.  To this case of ideas came Robert Brown, a congregationalist, in 1580 to make his beginning. In the Dutch town of Norwich, Robert Brown and Robert Harrison worked out their congregational theories without showing any conscious indebtedness to Anabaptist influences. His experiment failed and his people fled to Holland where the group disintegrated, and Browne himself later conformed to the Church of England. However, Seperatists ideas did not cease. Two leaders of a young Separatist church, Henry Barrowe and John Greenwood, were imprisoned in 1586, but in 1589 they sent from prison a simple church creed called A Trve Description ovt of the Word of God, of the visible Church. The creed did not concern itself with doctrinal matters since the congregation was already of one mind in holding Calvinistic views" (cf. historical context for A True Confession (1596, below), available on The Reformed Reader)

Treaty of Brest (1595) – Roman Catholicism. A treaty requiring numerous guarentees prior to the unity of the Church in Kiev with the Roman Catholic Church. Available on the Eternal Word Television Network (ETWN)

new link A True Confession (1596) – English Separatist- Baptist. Based on A True Description out of the Word of God, of the visible Church (1589, above). "In the summer of 1593 there was a change of policy on the part of the government toward the Separatists. While their leaders remained in prison, the dissenters left England for Holland. Most of the emigrants reached Holland in 1595 where the church was re- gathered. Desiring to make clear its doctrinal position and its ecclesiology, in view of the threats of attacks, the church prepared in 1596 a new creed, the shortened title of which is A Truve Confession. The seven Particular Baptist Churches of London used this confession as a model when they drew up their earliest confession in 1644. Thus, the Separatist Confession entered into Baptist life." Available on The Reformed Reader
 
fixed link corrected updated A Short Confession of Faith (1609) – John Smyth. English Separatist- Baptist. "John Smythe is one of the significant early Baptist leaders. This is his personal confession, never officially published. … Smyth's purpose in composing this confession seems to have been to stake out a distinct theological position in relation to both the main body of English separatists, and the continental Anabaptists with whom he had thrown in his lot." Available on The Reformed Reader

Five Articles of the Remonstrants (1610) – Arminian (Remonstrant)

fixed link corrected updated A Short Confession of Faith, aka Helwys Confession (1610) – Thomas Helwys. English Separatist- Baptist. "Early in 1610 the Helwy's party, also desirous of maintaining friendly relations with the Waterlanders, sent the Dutch a letter, written in Latin, urging them not to accept the English into their church. To receive them, Helwys said, would be but to encourage the erroneous belief of Smyth in a succession in spiritual things. With the letter went a confession of faith, also in Latin, consisting of nineteen articles in which the group described itself as the 'true Christian English church.' The confession was intended to enable the Dutch to distinguish its authors from the Smythe congregation, rather than to argue for admission of the Helwys party to the Mennonite fellowship. The Helwys party did not intend to seek such admission. Some of the 'Waterlanders, in spite of Helwys' protest, were favorably disposed toward the Smythe application, and they suggested that a closer study of doctrinal positions be undertaken. Would the English examine the popular confession of de Ries and Gerrits of 1580 and afterwards indicate their agreement or disagreement? The Smyth people being willing, an English translation in somewhat shortened form was drawn up by de Ries and submitted to them. Soon the names of forty- three English people, John Smyth's standing first, were affixed to the document. The confession is practically a reproduction of that of Gerrits and de Ries of 1580, with articles XIX and XXII omitted. The English now were willing to accept Menno's views of oaths, war, and civil magistracy." Available on The Reformed Reader

new link link wanted A Declaration of Faith of English People Remaining at Amsterdam (1611) – English Separatist- Baptist. "When the Smyth party sought admission to the Amsterdam Waterlander Church in 1610, some resistance was encountered inside the Mennonite fellowship. Some Waterlanders discouraged haste in the matter, suggesting that Mennonites in parts of Holland beyond Amsterdam and even in Prussia and Germany should be consulted to forestall possible later disharmony and disunity. However, Smyth's party was not in unanimous agreement. Regarding the question of their baptism, Smyth, Gerrits, and others of Smyth's close followers stood in a position near that of the Mennonites, for they now believed their own baptism to have been unscriptural. Meanwhile, Thomas Helwys was busily writing in 1610 and 1611, and in the latter year he published, in the name of his church, a confession of faith of twenty- seven articles. It repudiated the conciliatory views of the Latin articles which he had earlier submitted to the Waterlanders, particularly renouncing Arminian views of sin and the will. Mennonite influence is readily seen in the confession for it shows a departure from the hitherto markedly consistent Calvinism of the Separatist movement. But it shows also decided signs of its authors' Calvinistic background. It is anti- Calvinisitc on the doctrine of the atonement and anti- Arminian in its views of sin and the will. The confession shows considerable independence of thought and is rightly judged the first English Baptist Confession of Faith" (description: The Reformed Reader)

new link Propositions and Conclusions Concerning True Christian Religion (1612– 1614) – English Separatist- Baptist. "After Smyth's death in August, 1612, his party, now abandoned by the Helwys part, continued to wait for admission into the Amsterdam Waterlander Church. By this time Helwys had written not only his Confession of 1611, but also some additional works.  Smyth's followers responded by issuing a confession consisting of one hundred, two articles. The Confession may have been instrumental in finally accomplishing union with the Mennonites, which occurred on Jan. 20, 1615. It is principally notable, however, as perhaps the first confession of faith of modern times to demand freedom of conscience and seperation of church and state. In these respects it was the pioneer for later Baptist confessions which almost always contained similar views. This Confession found its way into John Cotton's hands in America, and it appears to have been referred to by English General Baptists as late as 1651." Available on The Reformed Reader

The Canons of Dordt (1618– 1619) – Reformed. A document designed to solidify the beliefs and teachings of Calvinism (Reformed), thus distinguishing and distancing itself from the recent teachings of Arminius and his followers (Arminianism)

The Confession of Cyril Lucaris (1629) – Reformed (or Eastern Church). According to the Eastern Church (see The Confession of Dositheus (1672), below), this document is a forgery written and circulated by Calvinists (i.e., the Reformed Church)


fixed link updated The Dordrecht Confession (1632) – Anabaptist (Mennonite). "The most influential of all Mennonite confessions was adopted at Dordrecht on April 21, 1632, at a peace conference of Flemish and Frisian ministers. Representation at this conference was large enough to draw from the Reformed clergy a protest against 'this extraordinary gathering of Anabaptists from all provinces.' The confession, whose first draft was written by Adrian Cornelis, bishop of the Flemish Church in Dordrecht, served successfully as a basis of union for the Frisian and Flemish bodies. Of the fifty- one ministers who signed the confession, two were from Crefeld, Germany, and two from Central and South Germany ('the upper country'). The confession is still owned by the 'Mennonite Church' and other conservative Mennonite bodies of America. Its chief significance to American Mennonites is 'its value as a symbol of the Mennonite heritage of faith and way of life.' " Available on The Reformed Reader

new link John Spilsbury and His Confession (1643) – John Spilsbury. English Baptist Associational (Particular Baptist). "The personal confession of ten articles Spilsbury submitted for the 'Godly reader to judge, what difference there is between him and me, in the main, that men should be so incensed against me, as to seek my life, as some have done.' Spilsbury wanted to disarm those who cast 'reproachful clamors … upon all without exception, that seem to be of my judgment about baptism' by declaring 'a word of my faith, what I believe and hold to be truth, and desire to practice the same.' One year later, Spilsbury would join with the other Particular Baptist churches in London in publishing and signing the First London Confession." Available on The Reformed Reader

new link First London Baptist Confession of Faith (1644) – English Baptist Associational (Particular Baptist). First edition. "A confession of faith of seven congregations or churches of Christ in London, which are commonly, but unjustly, called Anabaptists; published for the vindication of the truth and information of the ignorant; likewise for the taking off those aspersions which are frequently, both in pulpit and print, unjustly cast upon them." Available on The Reformed Reader

new link First London Baptist Confession of Faith (1646) – English Baptist Associational (Particular Baptist). Second edition; corrected and enlarged. Available on The Reformed Reader

new link An Appendix to a Confession of Faith (1646) – Benjamin Cox. English Baptist Associational (Particular Baptist). This appendix is for the First London Baptist Confession of Faith (1646, above). "Published for the further clearing of Truth, and discovery of their mistake who have imagined a dissent in fundamentals when there is none." Available on The Reformed Reader

The Westminster Confession of Faith with Scripture Proofs (1646) – Reformed

fixed link corrected updated The Faith and Practice of Thirty Congregations Gathered According to the Primitive Pattern (1651) – English Baptist Associational (General Baptist). "The period of the Commonwealth (1650– 1659) was more productive of Confessions than any similar period of Baptist history. … A new sense of liberty challenged the nation early in the sixth decade, and the churches, for the first time, had full freedom to associate. … An associational meeting was held in 1651, probably at Leicester, but it is not certain that this was the first such meeting of the churches. … Thirty churches from an area one hundred miles long and twenty- four miles wide were represented at the meeting, each by two messengers or delegates. Probably the most important thing done in the meeting of 1651 was the adoption of a Confession called The Faith and Practice of Thirty Congregations, Gathered According to the Primitive Pattern. The Confession is important because it is the first General Baptist statement representing the views of more than one church, rather than because of the prominence of its author or signatories. It shows essential agreement with the first General Baptist Confession (1611). The first forty- five articles concern the doctrines of the churches; the remaining thirty demonstrate their practices. No consistently Arminian system is revealed; rather, some traditional emphases of Calvinism are set forth." Available on The Reformed Reader

fixed link corrected updated The True Gospel- Faith Declared According to the Scriptures (1654) – English Baptist Associational (General Baptist). "The form which the Confession of 1654 took is more like that of the Particular Baptist Confession of 1644 than the Midland Confession of 1651, but even the form shows complete independence, and the confession possesses some novel aspects. The articles presenting the theological outlook of the authors are especially lacking in detail. … The Confession always uses 'dipped' for baptized. It also is the first Baptist Confession to prescribe the laying on of hands for all baptized believers. This practice appears to have been but lately brought to the attention of Baptists, and John Griffith was a leading exponent of it. It was not yet commonly used among General Baptists. … Perhaps the Confession steadied all London General Baptists, after making them aware of the serious danger in which they stood, for it does reflect a certain stability and maturity of thought which characterized the churches represented by it. It also gives the best picture of the reaction of Baptists to the first serious effort of the Quakers to win London." Available on The Reformed Reader

fixed link corrected updated Midland Confession of Faith (1655) – English Baptist Associational (General Baptist). "In the Midlands in 1655, General Baptists far outnumbered their Calvinistic Brethren. The General Baptist Confession of 1651 had been signed by members of thirty congregations of the area, but when the Particular Baptists met in 1655 to constitute their Midland Association, there were but fourteen of their churches in the eight counties, and only seven of them were as yet willing to associate. Two principal factors led to the formation of the Midland Association in 1655. One was the general trend among Baptists at that time toward associating. In promoting this trend the London churches took the lead, and they evidently were concerned with the beginnings of the organization in the Midlands. … The other factor promoting the organization of the Association was the great activity of the Quakers in the Midlands in 1654 and 1655. The Confession was probably modeled after the London Confession of 1644 but its statements are original. In spite of its brevity, the theological portion is a careful and praiseworthy summary of Calvinistic Baptist doctrine of the middle of the seventeenth century. The primary purpose of the Confession was instructional rather than apologetic. Its usefulness was not soon lost. The London Confession of 1689, however, concluded that which was wanting in breadth in the Midland Confession." Available on The Reformed Reader

new link A Brief Confession of Faith of the Reformed Churches of Piedmont (1655) – Waldenses and Reformed (Calvinism). In part, this statement of faith is an abridgement of the Gallican Confession (1559) but reflects the beliefs and teachings of both Reformed (Calvinist) and Waldenses (i.e., Peter Waldo amalgamated with those of Pierre de Bruys, Arnold of Brescia, and other early reformers). Available on Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM)

new link The Somerset Confession of Faith (1656) – Thomas Collier. English Baptist Associational (General Baptist). "The seventh meeting of the Association took place at Bridgewater on September 5– 6, 1656, at which time a Confession of Faith was approved. It was evidently the work of Thomas Collier, but the fact that decisions in favor of some of the positions announced in the Confession were made at this meeting, might indicate that he had help in preparing the Confession. It is evident from the Epistle Dedicatory that the Quakers were chiefly responsible for the appearance of the Confession in 1656. The authors said that two facts caused them to set forth their beliefs. First, they denied the 'general charge' that their churches were not Calvinistic and so were out of accord with the London Particular churches, and owned both the London brethren and their Confession. Second, … [t]he Quaker fire was burning menacingly around the Baptists when their Western (or Somerset) Association met …. The Confession which the churches at that meeting decided to publish may have been originally drawn up before 1656, possibly in 1653 when it, like the Midland Particular Association Confession, would have served as a basis of union …. The Confession bears the mark of careful preparation, and the impress of Collier can be seen at various points. While an effort is made to approximate the theological position of the London Confession, there is complete independence of expression, and there are some noteworthy omissions of material of the older document. Perhaps there was some ground for the saying that these Baptists did not quite have the same theological outlook as their London brethren." Available on The Reformed Reader

new link A Declaration of Several People Called Anabaptists (1659) – Anabaptist. "The radical faith of Anabaptists resulted in frequent persecution; thousands died gruesome deaths at the hands of their persecutors. Menno Simons encouraged the persecuted Christians in their faith by preaching and providing printed materials in support of their faith and way of life. The people to whom he ministered and provided leadership became known as 'Mennonites.' " Available on The Reformed Reader

fixed link updated The Standard Confession (1660) – English Baptist (General Baptist). "Amidst the general excitement, shortly preceeding the Restoration, Baptists were remarkably quiet. … The forty men who signed the Confession of 1660 were a fairly representative group in that they represented the chief General Baptist districts, however, the Confession did not represent 'all' of the General Baptists of England and Wales in 1660. … Although Thomas Grantham was said to have composed the Confession, it should be noted that he did not even sign the Confession in 1660 and did not become prominent until some years later. Thomas Monck of Hertforshire and Matthew Caffyn of Sussex and Kent may have made some contribution to the Confession. The Standard Confession is more of a confession of faith and less of a statement of practice than The Faith and Practice of Thirty Congregations. The poor arrangement of subjects might indicate the Confession was drawn up hurriedly. Theologically, the Confession is mildly Arminian. There is a more elaborate eschatology than in any other Baptist confession of the period, but the language of the three articles on the subject is strictly scriptural. Though the Confession was presented to King Charles II on July 26, 1660, along with an address, it did little to halt the persecution of Baptists, but they were spared temporarily by the official preoccupation with the more numberous and important Presbyterian dissenters. At the General Assembly in 1663, The Standard Confession was slightly rebised and reaffirmed by a larger circle of General Baptists. In 1678 Thomas Grantham edited the Confession, with 'a few explanatory supplements, and the testimony of many ancient writers of Christianity,' and the changes made by him were approved by the Assembly of 1691. From 1663 and on, it was considered the 'Standard' Confession of General Baptists." Available on The Reformed Reader

The Confession of Dositheus (1672) – Eastern Church. Only Chapter VI is available online in English. This document is also known as The Acts and Decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem. "The Orthodox authorities gathered for the Synod of Jerusalem alleged the 1629 Confession to have been a forgery by Calvinists. … Chapter VI. sets forth the Orthodox faith in eighteen decrees and four questions … corresponding precisely to the chapters and questions in the 1629 Confession"

new link link wanted The Orthodox Creed (1678) – English Baptist. "The example of the Particular Baptists in publishing a new confession was closely followed by the General Baptists when, in 1678, they drew up their so- called 'Orthodox Creed' to 'unite and confirm all true Protestants in the fundamental articles of the Christian religion …. Additional inspiration for the Creed lay in the desire to refute the Hoffmanite Christology which Matthew Caffyn, a General Baptist messenger, was preaching Kent and Sussex, and in the fear of a return of popery to England. The Creed was not published in the name of the General Assembly but of a group of the more earnestly orthodox General Baptist churches of the Midlands, in the counties of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire, and Oxford. On Jan. 30, 1678, fifty- four Messengers, Elders, and Brethren met 'in the name of many baptized Christians or congregations in the several counties.' The Creed is supposed to have been particularly the work of Thomas Monck, a farmer and a Messenger in Buckinghamshire, who in 1673 had published A cure for the cankering error of the new Eutychains. Theologically, in keeping with its unionistic purpose, the Confession approaches Calvinism more closely than any other General Baptist confession.  This disposition is particularly evident in the articles on 'Predestination and Election' (IX), 'Perseverance' (XXXVI), and 'The Invisible Church' (XXXIX). Perhaps, indeed, the Creed is principally noteworthy as an early attempt at compromise between the two great systems of theology, thus anticipating the work of Andrew Fuller and others of the latter eighteenth century" (description: The Reformed Reader)
 
fixed link updated Second London Baptist Confession of Faith, aka The Assembly (1689) – English Baptist (Particular Baptist). "A circular letter was sent to particular Baptist churches in England and Wales asking each assembly to send representatives to a meeting in London in 1677. A confession consciously modeled after the Westminster Confession of Faith was approved and published. It has ever since born the name of the Second London Confession. The First London Confession had been issued by seven Baptist congregations of London in 1644. That first document had been drawn up to distinguish newly organized Calvinistic Baptists from the Arminian Baptists and the Anabaptists. Because this second London Confession was drawn up in dark hours of oppression, it was issued anonymously." Available on The Reformed Reader. There is also A Tabular Comparison of the 1646 WCF and the 1689 LBCF available on Analogical Thoughts


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fixed link updated A Short Confession or a Brief Narrative of Faith (1691) – English Baptist. "In the West Country during the last quarter of the seventeenth century there was a remarkable current away from Calvinism among some Particular Baptist churches founded by Thomas Collier, the 'Apostle to the West.' Explanation for this drift may be found in Collier's change of views and his desire to comprehend General as well as Particular Baptists in his circle. London Particular churches sent deputations to the West to persuade Collier of his error and to halt the tide of his influence. A few churches were reclaimed, some joined the Particular Baptist General Assembly in 1689. Others followed Collier in remaining aloof from it. These seem to have prepared the Somerset Confession of 1691 in response to the Assembly Confession of two years earlier, against which Collier dissented at a number of points.

The Somerset Confession could not have been prepared by a General Baptist group, as McGlothlin says, in spite of the General Baptist tone of some of its articles. General Baptists were few in the Somerset area in 1691, and they do not seem to have had an associational life until after 1693.  What is more important, the Confession clearly shows its author’s Calvinistic patterns of thought, and in its longest chapter (XXIII) it speaks with deliberate criticism of a learned ministry. The Particular Baptist General Assembly had recently given much attention to the problem of raising up a trained ministry, and this article apparently gives the answer of the extra-Assembly Particular churches of the West to this emphasis. Two reasons were stated for publishing the Confession: to provide a basis of agreement for churches in the area and to clear the authors of suspicion in the eyes of Baptists that they were 'a people degenerated from almost all other baptized congregations.'

The Confession is notable for its clarity and force of expression. It is concerned primarily with doctrine, though there is an elaborate and informative article on the Church.  The order and form of the articles are entirely independent; neither the Westminster nor the 1656 Somerset Confession is followed. The Confession probably did not find use beyond the West of England. Its significance lies in the departure shown in it by one Particular Baptist group from the heightening Calvinism of the late seventeenth century, and in its attempt to speak for both Particular and General Baptists." Available on The Reformed Reader


Goat Yard Declaration of Faith (1729)

The Philadelphia Confession of Faith (1742) – Reformed (Baptist). This confession "is identical to the Second London Confession of Faith (1689), except that chapters 23 and 31 have been added (with other chapters appropriately renumbered)"

The Coalheaver's Confession (1745) – English Baptist. "Written by William Huntington (1745– 1813) and though there is no claim of being associated with Baptist General Confessions in particular or generally accepted by any number of congregations in England at the time, the confession is still noteworthy to study.  The confession was written and published solely by William Huntington and displays the theological teaching within his own church which undoubtedly influenced much of his congregation and others." Available on The Reformed Reader

fixed link updated Declaration of the Faith and Practice of the Church in Carter Lane, Southwark (1757) – John Gill. English Baptist Associational (General Baptist). Based on the Goat Yard Declaration of Faith (1729). Available on The Reformed Reader

new link Declaration of the Faith and Practice of the Church of Christ (1757) – John Gill. English Baptist Associational (General Baptist). Available on The Reformed Reader

Articles of Religion of the New Connexion (1770) – English Baptist. "Revival came to the General Baptists from beyond their own ranks in the second half of the eighteenth century as a consequence of the Evangelical Awakening.  Daniel Taylor, a young miner of Yorkshire, was converted under Wesleyan preaching.  Disagreeing with Wesley's views on discipline, he became a minister in 1762 of a little group of Methodist seceders at Wadsworth, near Hebden Bridge, Yorkshire. His study of the scriptures soon led him to reject infant baptism, and in 1763 he was baptized at the hands of a General Baptist pastor at Gamston, Nottinghamshire.

Taylor carried some of his people with him in his change of views, and he represented them at the Assembly of the Lincolnshire General Baptists that year.  However, Taylor became distressed at the doctrinal laxity and backwardness of outlook found as he attended the General Assembly in London. 

The primary purpose for the Articles of Religion of the New Connexion was 'to revive experimental religion or primitive Christianity in faith and practice.'  These articles did not pretend to be a thorough summary of the Christian faith, but rather to indicate the distinguishing tenets of the New Connexion. Daniel Taylor gave further circulation to the Articles when he incorporated their views in a catechism for children and young people and when, in more elaborate form, he prepared a confession of faith based upon the Articles for his London church (1785)." Available on The Reformed Reader


link wanted Twenty- Five Articles of Religion (1784) – Arminian (Methodist)

The Thirty- Nine Articles of Religion (1801) – Church of England (Protestant Episcopal Church)

The (Twenty- Five) Articles of Religion (1808) – John Wesley. Arminian (Methodist)

Confession of Faith (1823) – Arminian (Methodist) and Reformed (Presbyterians of Wales)

Articles of Faith (1824) – Arminian (Liberty Association)

The New Hampshire Confession (1833) – © 1833 John Newton Brown. Arminian (General Baptist)

The Abstract of Principles (1858) – Arminian (Southern Baptist)

Documents of Vatican I (1869– 1870) – Roman Catholic. "Besides important canons relating to the Faith and the constitution of the Church, the council decreed the infallibility of the pope when speaking ex cathedra, i.e. when as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church" (The 21 Ecumenical Councils, available on New Advent)